NARRATIVE OF MUNSHI JEEWAN LAL.
On the morning of the 11th May, between eight and nine o'clock, a wonderful report reached me as it spread through the city, that some cavalry and foot soldiers had arrived from Meerut, and were in the bazaar plundering and killing the people. Whereas by the mercy of God the English rule was established in the country, the rumour was disbelieved, and it was stated that some ignorant people had escaped from Mecrut, and were misconducting themselves. It was affirmed that English troops from Meerut had been sent in pursuit of them, and would immediately arrive and severely deal with the plunderers and those persons who were spreading false alarms. I had been that morning to Captain Douglas, the Assistant Resident, who was in charge of the Palace Guard, and I had returned home about eight o'clock. It was the practice for the Assistant Resident to make a copy of my diary for his own information, and that of the Resident, as to all matters connected with the Court. After returning home I was preparing to go to Court at ten o'clock, and had ordered my palki to be ready, when some of the Moharers (clerks) of the Court came to my house and begged me not to leave the building, as it was no longer possible to go through the streets in safety. They told me that strife and bloodshed were rife in the city, and it was rumoured that some of the authorities had been murdered, but that the Commissioner and Magistrates had escaped. One of my informants stated that he had met the officers hurrying to the entrenchments. It was reported, too, that the city gates had been closed, and there was no way of getting out ; also that the Hospital Assistants had all been murdered, and that the city Budmashes had begun to plunder. I despatched one of my servants, Sakun, to go to Captain Douglas in the Fort and to ascertain if any orders had been issued for me to obey, and also to inquire what the officers in cantonments were doing. After a time he returned and reported that the road to the Palace was blocked ; that groups of soldiery
were standing about in front of the King's Palace, the door of which was closed ; that crowds of Budmashes were pointing out to the soldiers the residences of the Europeans and wealthier natives. Europeans were being killed in every direction, and their property plundered. The Bank had been broken into and robbed ; Mr. Bensford, the Manager, and Mr. 0'Hara murdered. others had hid themselves. Mr. Nixon, Head Clerk of the Commissioner's Office, had been killed, and his body was lying on the road; Mr. Neil, the Second Clerk, together with Mr. Peppe and the children, had concealed themselves, but the soldiers had managed to find out their hiding place, and had killed them all. Sakun further toldme that he had been to the Commissioner's Cutcherry, and had seen Mr. Nixon's body, lying, with a bullet wound, on the road. He had heard such dreadful screaming and wailing that he had lost all courage and had fled. The man wept as he spoke; I, too, was terrified, and my heart almost ceased to beat. I wept to feel how utterly powerless I was. Next came news that Mr. Simon Fraser, the Commissioner, and Mr. Henderson had escaped and that Sir John Metcalfe, the joint Magistrate, and Mr. Le Bas, the Judge, had also got away, no one could tell where. Sir John was thought to have gone to the Kutub. As he knew the environs of the city well, we guessed that he might possibly have taken refuge in the Dilkusha at Merowbe in the tomb of Rahun Alla-u-din, which his father, the former Resident, had converted into a residence. Then came a man and reported that the Budmashes were naming me as being the Mir-Munshi1 (1 Chief writer.) to the Agent of the Governor General, and as one worthy of death, and offering to point out my house, which I was advised to fortify. Terrified and horror stricken, I ordered the gates to be locked. The house had been built in the days of the Emperor Ferozeshah, and was of solid stone, and as strong as a fort. The doors and windows were all closed. There were underground apartments, into which my family entered, and there remained concealed. I arranged all the servants for watch and ward, both in front and behind, with orders to admit no one, and to give me information if any persons came. I was moved by the thoughts that for many years I had eaten the salt of the English Government and wished it well, and now was an opportunity to do all that was possible with heart and soul for those I had served. So I sent Sakun with instructions to ascertain if I could be of any service to Sir john Metcalfe and my other patrons, as well as to my friends, and to inquire about several Englishmen, in the same office as myself, who lived in the city, in houses in Dariaganj, and about the Cashmere Gate. Chief of these were Mr. Davis, his brother Tommy, and Mr. Maley. He was to urge them, if they had no place of concealment, to come to my house, where, with the help of God, I would guard them like the apple of my eye, or the soul in my body. I would personally attend to them ; Sakun should conduct them through by lanes to my house, and, please God, they should suffer no hardships.
With a view to obtaining news of the rebels' doings, I engaged the services of two Brahmins, Girdhari Misser and Heera Sing Misser, and of two jats, who were deputed to bring me information, from time to time, of all that happened at the city gates and inside the Palace by night as well as by day, in order that 1 might keep a true and faithful account of all that passed for the information of the high officers of the State. About twelve o'clock came Jubmul, the Court newswriter, and Makun, Chowkidar, to Captain Douglas. They reported the city panic struck all houses and shops closed, the inmates concealed inside sitting silent in terror, or praying to God for His mercy and protection. Next came news about Mr. Simon Fraser, Agent and Commissioner of Delhi. Early in the morning, on rising, he was informed that a number of cavalry and soldiers of different regiments from Mccrut had arrived at Delhi, and more were coming. They had burned down the toll collector's bungalow, had shot the European officer on duty, and left his body lying on the sand. The men, it was said, had expressed their intention of coming and taking possession of the city. At that moment, Mr. Henderson, the Magistrate, rode up, made a report to the Commissioner and immediately drove off towards Cantonments at Rajpur probably for the purpose of summoning troops and artillery. Mr. Fraser at the same time ordered his carriage to be got ready, and drove off, taking with him the troopers of the bodyguard belonging to the Nawb of Jajar's cavalry, who were always told off with a Resaldar for duty with the Commissioner. He told his servant to follow at once with his pistols and sword. He drove first by the Calcutta Gate to the river side bastion. He met there Mr. Le Bas, the Sessions judge, Captain Douglas,1 (1 It is said that Captain Douglas gave a letter to Mr. Fraser, and it is believed that this letter contained information of the mutiny of troops at Meerut, of the murder of their officers, and of the intention of the men to march to Delhi. Some said at the time that the letter was written by the wife of the bridge toll-collector, and that she asked for assistance to bury the dead body of her husband, for a message was sent to her saying that under the circumstances no help cculd be sent.) Mr. Nixon, and others, and carefully examined the river-course and bridge with a telescope. The burning bungalow was seen in flames. A consultation took place, when Mr. Henderson, the magistrate, rode up. The group conversed eagerly for some minutes, looking towards the river as if expecting every moment to see a European force pushing forward from one side, and troops from the Rajpur Cantonments from the other; but no help came from either side. Some men then hurried up from the bastion, calling out that the rebel troopers had entered the city by the Rajghat Water Gate, and had killed the surgeon, Dr. Chuman Lal, who had been as usual attending his patients in the Dariaganj Hospital. The staff had all fled, it was said, and the place had been plundered. Suddenly five troopers came galloping up and fired a volley,at the group of officers. A bullet struck Captain Douglas on the foot. Mr. Henderson, Mr. Le Bas, and the others fled in the direction of the courts. Mr. Fraser took refuge inside a sentry box on the bastion, in which a sentry was posted. 1 (1 The bodyguard all this time seem to have been looking on, unconcerned spectators. Another account says that some of the Jajjar Cavalry, riding up, caused the sowars to gallop away.) In the confusion he was not seen, and snatching up the Chowkidar's musket, which he had left standing in his sentrybox, he shot one of the sowars, who fell together with his horse, and the life imprisoned in his body escaped like a bird out of its cage, far above all reach. The troopers seemed frightened by this sudden apparition and by the death of one of their comrades. They fled. Possibly they may have thought there were more Europeans concealed. Mr. Fraser ordered one of his orderlies to gallop as hard as he could go to the house of Durga Pashad, agent of the Nawab of Jajjar (Abdur Rahman), and direct him to send to Jajjar at once and tell the NawAb of the outbreak, and request him to send two regiments with cavalry to Delhi without delay. Mr. Fraser, mounting his buggy, then drove off in the direction of the Palace. On the way he was attacked by several sowars, who fired pistol shots at him. He ordered the Jajjar orderlies to cut them down, but they made no attempt. The Commissioner swore at them in English, and putting his horse to a gallop he reached the Lahore Gate entrance to the Palace and ordered the agent and the " mooktear" of the King to be sent for. On the King's vakil, Mr, Fraser desired him to go at once to the King and require all his armed men to turn out as well as the two guns. Mr. Fraser also asked for two palleis to convey the ladies who were in Captain Douglas's quarters, viz., Miss Jennings, daughter of the chaplain, and another young lady, Miss Clifford, to the Begum's palace for protection. The message was conveyed to the King, who immediately gave the necessary orders, but such was his confusion that neither the guards, nor the cushions for the palkis, nor the bearers to carry the palkis, were forthcoming. No heed was paid to the orders given. The will to obey was wanting ; the King's household had become rebellious, refusing to obey all orders. The Commissioner remained for some time awaiting the palkis. Seeing that no attention was likely to be paid to his orders, he turned away as if to enter Captain Douglas's house. Pressed by the crowd, he ordered them to stand off. The gateway was guarded by a company of native infantry, whom he ordered to load and close the gate; but they refused to obey the order. Mr Fraser then remonstrated with the men on their behaviour. They remained silent. Mr. Fraser then turned to mount the steps leading to Captain Douglas's rooms. As he placed his foot on the first step, two Budmashes, by name Karlik Beg and Mogul Beg, rushed forward with drawn swords and cut him down. It has been stated how Captain Douglas received a wound at the bastion. As soon as he fell, he ,was assisted by his two orderlies into a buggy and driven to his quarters. On arrival there, they carried him upstairs in a fainting condition, Revived after drinking a glass of water, he gave orders to close all the doors and windows. Almost immediately he was joined by Mr. Jennings, the chaplain, and a friend, two married ladies, and the two girls, Miss Jennings and Miss Clifford. The ladies employed themselves in dressing Captain Douglas's wound, the pain of which caused him repeatedly to faint. Remembering that he had dropped his sword, he told his orderly to return to the bastion and recover it. Loud cries were now heard outside of "Allah- dad, Allah-dad!" followed by the breaking open of the doors, and a crowd of rebels came rushing into the house. Mr. Jennings tried to get out of the door, but was immediately cut to pieces by the bloodthirsty ruffians, who in their fury spared none of the Europeans, not even the helpless women.
[Here the diary breaks off to give some further incidents connected with the movements of Captain Douglas, Mr. Henderson, and Mr. Davis, and the escape of Sir John Metcalfe, These are given separately.]
About nine o'clock a frightful explosion was heard, accompanied by a sound like roll of thunder, with an earthquake, causing the ground to tremble. The sound came from the direction of the Fort. The whole city was panic struck and terrified. It soon became known that the Magazine had been attacked by the mutineers, assisted by the bad characters in the city. The officer in charge had then set fire to the gunpowder and blown it up. A great number of rebels and faithless men, lookers on, and city residents were thus released from attendance in this world. There was both rejoicing and sorrow in the city at this occurrence ; rejoicing that so many murderous and faithless men had been blown up, and sorrow that the English soldiers, who had all day been anxiously expected, had failed to appear, and the Government had failed to re-establish its supremacy. As night drew near, the inhabitants of each " Mahalla " were occupied in arranging for the watch and ward. The night passed, everyone being on the alert. Suddenly the sound of heavy guns was heard, and the watchers counted twenty one reports. The first impression was that the English force had arrived and had defeated the rebels, and in order to notify this to the dwellers in the city, had fired this salute. The majority of the citizens were delighted. In the morning I ascertained that the four regiments stationed at Rajpur had joined the mutineers, and the guns had been fired to express joy that the mutineers had gained them over to their cause. I learned, on inquiry, that, as soon as the Brigadier commanding had issued orders for his troops in cantonments to be put under arms, the Sepoys showed by their conduct that, while some were still loyal, the greater number were insubordinate and quite prepared to disobey orders. After some delay and entreaty on the part of their officers, a detachment of troops was induced to march towards the city; at the word of command the men loaded and shouldered their arms, but as they marched away it was evident that no dependence could be placed upon them, for their march was purposely slow, the men not even keeping step. On approaching the Cashmere Gate the Sepoys met the mutineers. They were ordered to fire, but not a shot was fired ; Sepoys and rebels interchanged compliments. The European officers collected into a group, whereupon they were charged by the troopers. The officers ran in different directions. One or two were cut down, but the others went off together, and after waiting a little in perplexity, eventually reached cantonments, one or two of thern being wounded. In the meantime the Sepoys fraternized with the rebels.
Later on in this day, the two Subahdars who had been admitted to an audience with the King in the presence of Captain Douglas, were again admitted to a private audience as the representatives of the crowds of soldiery that thronged the neighbourhood of the Palace. They formally tendered the services of the troops of the King. They were directed to take their orders from Hakim Ahsanullah Khan. They sought him out and gave their message. It is said that Ahsanullah looked much perplexed what reply to give. He looked upon the outbreak as a passing thunder cloud, too black to last long. His reply was: "You have been long accustomed under the English rule to regular pay. The King has no treasury. How can he pay you ? " The officers replied : " We will bring the revenue of the whole Empire to your treasury." Hakim Ahsanullah then called for a return of the troops who had mutinied. The officer in charge of the King's Palace was sent for. News of the death of some of the officers killed next reached the Palace, followed by the arrival of a regiment of cavalry, who took up a position in the courtyard of the Dewan-i-Khas. Many of the men forcibly intruded into the presence of the King, who was seated in the Dewan-I-Khas. Ahsanullah sought a private audience of the King, and on his advice a camel sowar was sent off with a letter to the Lieutenant Governor at Agra. From time to time more troops arrived. The court of the Palace became a scene of the wildest confusion, quarrellings, and disputes. With a view to introduce discipline among the troops orders were issued by Ahsanullah Klhan directing, the different Princes to assume command of the several regiments.
Early this morning (May 12th) I learned the occurrences at the jail. It became known to the prisoners about midday (on the 11th) that there was a great uproar in the city, and that the English had been overpowered. The prisoners received this astonishing news with loud cries, and a scene of great excitement ensued. The jailor, Lalla Tokur Dass, a man of great bravery and loyalty, nevertheless maintained discipline until about five o'clock in the afternoon, when the men who guarded the jail gave signs that they too had become affected with the spirit of the mutiny. They cornplained bitterly that by remaining at their post they were prevented from sharing in the plunder which was going on. They then began to show themselves in their true colours and to reveal the villany which actuated them. The jailor was patient and calm, awaiting orders and aid ; but, alas! there was no one to give an order, or to send succour. Helpless, he waited until the evening, when he quietly went to his own house. The citizens in Delhi applaud his conduct and behaviour. They owe him a deep debt of gratitude for not adding to the horrors of that eventful day by withholding the unrestrained action of desperate men. It is related how, when the prisoners first showed symptoms of attempting to break from the jail, a trooper having ridden up to the jail inciting the guard to open the prison gates, Tokur Lal, taking a musket from the sentry, shot him dead. Throughout the day he restrained all by his presence.
On this morning (12th) the whole body of native officers of the regiments that had arrived yesterday, concerted together and demanded an audience of the King. It was granted ; the native officers presented nazzars (tribute money) and described themselves as faithful soldiers awaiting his orders. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan secretly warned the King that no dependence could be placed on them, and expressed the fear that as soon as a sufficient number had been gathered together there would be a general plunder of the city. Later in the day Hakim Ahsanullah took counsel with some of the leading men of the city. He summoned for consultation Amin-u-din Khan, Mirza Zera-u- din Khan, Hassan Ali Khan, uncle of Jajjar. Their former connection with the Mahommedan power was appealed to, and they were desired to form an executive council for the purpose of maintaining order in the city and providing food for the soldiery. Hassan . Ali absolutely refused, on the grounds of his unsuitability for any executive duty. The council broke up without any definite decision, beyond arranging for supplies of food for the soldiers to prevent their plundering. This work was entrusted to Mahbub Ali Khan. Mahommed Mir Nawab, son of Tafagul Hossein, pleader of the Civil Court, was appointed Governor of the City. All trade in the city ceased entirely, for every shop that was opened was cleared of its contents. Nawab Hamud Ali Khan was this day accused of concealing Europeans, and their persons were demanded from him. The Nawab was then dragged to the Palace, and only released under orders from the King's Wazir ; the soldiery only consenting to his release on the condition that his house should be thoroughly
searched, and that he should be dealt with as they pleased, should a single European be found concealed there. Letters were despatched to the Rajas of Patiala, Jajjar, Bulubgarh, Bahadurgarh, and Ellore to march at once upon Delhi with all their forces to join the King's army, and to repel any attack on the city by the English. All this afternoon the Palace was thronged by a turbulent mob of soldiers, calling out that all the grain shops were closed and the King's loyal servants were starving. The soldiers demanded of the King that he should pass through the city accompanied by his Army, and personally allay the fears of the citizens and order the people to resume their ordinary occupations. The King yielded, and, mounted on an elephant, passed in procession through the streets. He did personally order the shops to be reopened, and some were opened and again closed ; but the shopkeepers generally were deaf to his orders. When the King returned to the Palace, he found the courtyard of the Dewan-i-Khas crowded with troopers and their horses. They assailed him with loud cries, complaining that the men of the regiment which had mutinied at Delhi had possessed themselves of the treasure from the Delhi collectorate, intending to keep it, and had refused to share it with the Meerut mutineers. The King, utterly distracted and bewildered in the conflictilig counsels, ordered the Princes, who had been appointed to the command of the troops, to send every mutineer out of the city, locating regiments in separate places, and leaving only one, regiment in the Palace for the defence of the city, and another on the sands in front of the Palace, between the fort and the river. The King pointed out to some of the Subahdars present that the Devan-i-Khaas had hitherto been .in enclosure sacred to Royalty alone, and had never before been forcibly entered by armed men. Another regiment was ordered to hold the Ajmere Gate of the city, a fourth the Delhi Gate, a fifth the Cashmere Gate. These orders were partially carried out. From house to house the unwilling King was distracted by cries and petitions now from the servants of Europeans who had been murdered, now from the shopkeepers whose shops had been plundered, now from the higher classes whose houses had been broken into all looked to the King for immediate redress. Appeals were made to him to repress the plunder and rapine now common through out the city.
The King, in a Persian rubakari, beautiful with flowing language, called on all the Subahdars to remember that such a state of things was most unbecoming in the reign of a Mahommedan king who was a bright light in the histories of the world, and at whose feet all other kings and monarchs waited with bended knee; and that it must be suppressed. Towards evening a number of his native regimental officers came and again represented the difficulty they experienced in getting rations. Forgetful of the lofty tone of the morning's order, and of the high toned phraseology expressive of the King's dignity, they addressed him with such disrespectful terms, " I say, you King! I say, you old fellow! " (" Ari,l Badshah! Ari, Buddha!") (1 "Ari" is a slang expression used by the common people to attract attention, but a most insolent form of address to use to a monarch or any superior) "Listen," cried one, catching him by the hand. " Listen to me," said another, touching the old King's beard. Angered at their behaviour, yet unable to prevent their insolence, he found relief alone in bewailing before his servants his misfortunes and his fate. Again summoiied by loud cries from outside the Palace gates, he passed a second time in procession through the city, calling on the shopkeepers to open their shops and resume trade. Throughout this eventful day he was distraught, perplexed, and cowed at finding himself in a position which made him the mere puppet of those who had formerly been only too glad humbly to obey his orders, but who now, taking advantage of the spirit of insubordination which was rife in all classes of the city in this day of ruin and riot, were not ashamed to mock and humiliate him.
May 13.-- Information reached the Palace that the house of the Rajah of Kishengarh was surrounded by Sepoys, who had detected Europeans there. Hearing this, I sent my servants to see quickly if any assistance could be given, but they found the place so guarded as to be unapproach able. It appears that a party of thirty persons, Europeans and East Indians, had taken refuge in the underground apartments of the Rajah's house. For two days the refugees had remained concealed there, suffering intensely from hunger and thirst. On the third day a water carrier passing by was asked by one of the refugees to give him a drink of water. He gave the water, but on leaving the place and meeting some Sepoys, he told them where the Europeans were concealed. The house was strongly constructed, and the refugees, who were armed, opened fire at the Sepoys who attempted to approach. Finding it impossible to get at the Europeans by force, the Sepoys opened negotiations, offering to conduct thern to the King, if they would leave the house. In the meantime, Syed Gholam Abbas' otherwise known as Saif-ul Dowlah, hearing the news, at once informed the King that Mr. Davis, Mr. Bailey, and other clerks of the Agent's office, were in great danger of their lives. Gholam Abbas pointed out to the King that if lie should succeed in saving their lives, that act would place him in a favourable light before the English. The King at once became interested in their fate, and inquired where they were. Orders were then issued that they were to be saved, and a messenger was sent to bring the refugees into the King's presence. The messenger selected was his eldest son, Mirza Kobash. It is said he used his best endeavours to save the refugees from the hand of the mutineers. The King had a great personal regard for Mr. Davis, who had been for years in charge of the monthly payments to the King of the pension given him by the East India Company. Mr. Davis was paid out of the King's allowances, and had been in constant communication with regard to all monetary transactions between the King, and the British Agent. Alas! before Mirza Kobash arrived at the Maharajah's house, the refugees, worn out with anxiety and want of food, yielded to the assurances that they would be taken to the King. On emerging from their place of refuge, they had seated themselves in the courtyard. A Sepoy, addressing one of the defenceless women, began to use revolting abuse. In reply to a question as to what she would give to save her life, Mr. Davis's sister retorted: "Has such a one as you the power of life and death? It is God only who can give and take life." Angered by the reply, the Sepoy raised his sword. Cowering beneath the expected blow, the lady turned to shield the infant she bore in her arms what necessity is there to relate what then took place ! 1 (1An alternative account of this massacre is given in the Appendix. ) "These tears cannot be restrained : they overflow all bounds." A few only were saved and taken to the Palace.2 (2 . In the diary of Mainodin Khan it is stated tbat ail were massacred and none escaped. It is also stated that the King's messenger arrived belore the niassacre took place, and demanded that the captives should be sent to the Palace, but his orders were treated with contempt.)
Mirza Mai-u-din Hassan Khan was this day appointed Kotwal and head of the Commissariat in the city, with orders to make immediate arrangements for the supplies to the soldiery. Mirza Mai-u-din, Mirza Kizr Sultan, and Mirza Abdullah were appointed Colonels of Infantry. It was reported that a son of Mr. Joseph Skinner was detected dressed in native costume : he was seized by the ruffians and taken to the police station, where he was murdered. Orders were issued to Mai-u-din Khan to notify in the city that whoever wished to serve the King was to present himself. Nawab Wallidad Khan and Nawab Hamid Ali Khan presented themselves and gave nazzars, and were ordered to be present every day at the audience to carry out commands. Information reached me that the remaining European ladies and gentlemen who had been concealed in the underground cellars of the Kishengarh House, and had been confined there, were taken by the mutineers and murdered in cold blood. Upwards Of 200 rebel soldiers and bad characters of the city attacked the house of a canalwater Revenue officer, Narain Dass, and plundered it. One European, an Englishman, who was found in concealment there, was murdered. To day, orders were issued by the King to write at once to Jeypur, summoning the forces of the Rajah to his aid.
May 14.-- The King, distracted and perplexed, shut himself up, refusing audience to all. Both Amin-u-din Khan and Ja-u-di'n Khan sought to see the King on pressing business, but were refused. Later on, in the course of the day, the King sent for Moulvie Suden-u-din Khan Bahadur, and appointed him City Magistrate, to try all cases, and decide them with impartiality and justice. The Moulvie excused himself on the plea of bad health. The Treasurer of the Collectorate was next summoned, and questioned as to the cash balance in the Treasury, on the 11th May. The man either could not or would not give any information. Others among the Mahommedan nobility were sent for. Orders were issued to the Rajahs of Jeypur, Jodhpur, and Bikanir personally to attend, or to send soldiers to rally round the King. Mirza Amin-u-din Khan was ordered to proceed to Ferozepur, to arrange for a Mahommedan Administration, and to raise a force of Mewattis. Mirza asked for orders to allow him free egress and ingress to and from the city, which orders were accordingly issued. News came that the Gujars of Chundrowli had risen in great numbers under the orders of one Damar Ram, and were plundering the country as far as Sundeir Mundai. A force was sent out under the orders of Mirza Abu Baksh to repress the rising ; a Gujar village was fired. Two persons, a man and a woman, of European extraction, were found and brought in ; orders were issued to detain them in safety in the fort. Much excitement was caused throughout the city by information received that a European force had marched from Meerut ; the messengers who brought the information were declared to be spies sent by the English, and were ordered to be imprisoned. The officer in charge of the city reported that many European corpses were lying about. The King ordered a search to be made for the bodies of Mr. Simon Fraser (the Commissioner) and Captain Douglas, in order that if found they might be buried in the Christian burial ground ; but all other bodies were to be thrown into the river. The native officers again assembled to demand food for the troops, who could no longer be prevented from plundering. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan 1 and Nawab Mahabub Ali Khan were ordered to arrange for a supply of grain at once to save the city from plunder. Two men, Kami Khan and Sarifaraz Khan, were apprehended as bad characters and confined.
May 15. Orders were issued to appoint a police force of 100 men for the "safety" of the city. Abdul Kadir obtained an audience, to present a list of executive officers for the new Administration. Mahabub Ali Khan gave Abdul Kadir the command of two regiments of cavalry. Gholam Khan, Agent for the Nawab of Jajjar, accompanied by Akbar Ali, a sowar, arrived, and represented that the Jajjar forces had all mutinied, and that Jajjar was engaged in reducing them to order, but that fifty sowars had been sent as an addition to the King's Army. Moulvie Ahmed Ali attended on the part of the Rajah of Bulubgarh to represent that he was employed in quelling a rising. That finished, he would attend on the King with his horses. Orders were issued to hasten his arrival. News was received that the magistrate and collector had reached Rohtak with a force of one regiment of foot and one of cavalry to save the treasure. Orders were issued to Abdul Karim Khan to raise a force Of 400 infantry and 1,000 cavalry on salaries of Rs. 5
and Rs.30 respectively. Orders were also issued to remove Abu Baksh from the command of his regiment, and no orders were to be carried out unless issued by the King, Kazi Mahommed Farzulia was appointed City KotwAl, after presenting a nazzar of 5 rupees. Abdul Hakim was appointed Naib Kazi for the administration of justice. News was received that the mutineers were intimidating the city people, and that 200 troopers, having plundered a quantity of money, had deserted and gone off to their homes, and had in turn been attacked by the Gujars and plundered. The Sepoys resented the authority of Hakim Ahsanullah KhAn and Mahabub Ali Khan, on the grounds that they were in correspondence with the English, and sending letters from the King to the English. They denied all such transactions, and swore to hold no further communication with the English. News was received that Sir John Metcalle and Mr. Ford had been seen at Jaj'jar and had been denied shelter and hospitality by the Nawab. A threatening letter had been sent to the Nawab with orders that unless he at once joined the cause of the King he would be attacked. The Sepoys were much disheartened by the news that the Gurkhas had all elected to side with the English, and that a mixed force of Gurkhas and English was marching from Simla. The house of Girdhari Lal, son of Sukichund, was this day surrounded. The Sepoys were bought off by a payment of sixteen rupees. The city bankers were this day called upon to provide supplies for the Sepoys. Several respectable men were seized and made to carry burdens to intimidate them and extort money. Such were their sufferings that the better class of city people offered prayers this day for the speedy advent of the English and for the defeat of the rebels. All valuable property had by this time been buried, and a private police force had been raised by, the better class of citizens to protect themselves and their property from plunder and violence.
May 16. The Sepoys assembled early this morning before the Palace, threatening the King and his officers, accusing them of saving the lives of European ladies and gentlemen and concealing them in the Fort, and through them communicating with the Europeans at Meerut. The following are the names of the King's officers appointed to assist in the administration of affairs : Mufti. Usuf Ali Khan, Mir Adul Bahadur, Captain Ali Dildar Khan, Mahommed Hyder Hossein Khan, Syed Shuruf Ali Khan FozdAr, Nizarul Khan Bahadur.
I learned to-day that nearly forty Europeans were concealed in the King's Palace. The Sepoys went to the Palace in great anger, as they said they had seized a messenger with a letter cursing the mutineers. The Sepoys threatened to kill Ahsanullah Khan and Nawab Mahabub Ali Khan, and also threatened to take away Zinat Mehal Begum Sahiba and keep her as a hostage for the king's loyalty. There was a great uproar in the Palace, the Sepoys on the one hand, and the King's household on the other, contending with violent language and harsh vociferations. To appease the mutineers, Mahabub Ali Khan took an oath that he was not the author of that letter, nor had it been written with his knowledge. (It was on this date that the Europeans in the Palace were butchered in a manner that defies description. Alay God preserve them in the next world ! All good men, when they think of that day, exclaim, " May God, who is our Protector, Preserver, and Guardian from all fear, protect us through this life and in the life to come ! ") The King and his assembled councillors stood like dumb puppets. The King ordered the Sepoys to separate themselves into two parties, Mahommedans and Hindus, and he appealed to each to consult their religious advisers to see if there were any authority for the slaughter of helpless men, women, and children. But "Khuni janini kiske su'nti hai?" "Whose word will a frenzied murderer obey ? " Let it suffice to pass over that awful day in silence. In the afternoon a man was apprehended in the garb of a cavalry trooper, who had been taken whilst plundering. He was brought before the King, who ordered the property he had stolen to be taken from him, and that he should be released with a warning. Daily it was coming to pass that the dead by means of the living were bringing sorrow on the King, for the mutineers would neither leave the city nor protect it. They remained only for plunder and violence. This day the King gave audience to Moulvie Mahommed Bakr and Moulvie Abdul Kadir, who had greatly commended themselves for the intelligence and bravery with which they had performed their respective duties. The latter reported that he was making such arrangements that the Sepoys would willingly leave the city. The King gave a khillat to Moulvie Mahommed Bakr, and with great pomp sent Moulvie Abdul Ka'dir, seated in a royal howdah, to his house. A body of mutineers this day visited the house of Munshi Mohun, with the intention of killing him, but he was saved by Hazrut Nizam-u-din, the son of a holy and influential man, who interceded for him as being a Mahommedan. Many of the neighbours also bore testimony to his being a Mahommedan and not a Christian. The shopkeepers at the Lahore Gate complained this day to the King that Kashi Nalei Thanadar was troubling them to give him a bribe of 1,000 rupees. The King ordered the Thanadar to be sent to jail. The King this day ordered a special inquiry to be made into the fate of Sir John Metcalfe. Under his directions the bodies of the murdered were carefully examined to see if his body were among the dead. Friends too, anxious for his safety, inquired in vain for him. Anxious to learn the fate of the civil officers, I had early deputed Girdhari Misser and Heera Sing, two trustworthy Brahmins, to go out and ascertain all that had happened. I charged them specially to bring me news of Sir John; but they could learn nothing. It was reported later in the day to the King that Sir John Metcalfe had not been identified among the killed.
May 17. Some troopers to-day brought in some supplies which they had plundered from Shahdara. News received by the King that Sir John Metcalfe was still at Jajjar, claiming protection from the Nawab. Mr. Hatharlet, who was under the NawAb's protection, had also asked permission to be allowed to go to Kalera for safety. The Nawab allowed him to depart. The mutineers this day elected Abu Bakr as their King in place of the old King, whom they declared to be too old and infirm. Hakimulla had an audience and represented that the mutineers were a treacherous, bloodthirsty class, on whom no dependence could be placed. The King summoned many of the Sepoys to his presence and spoke to them very severely. The Vakil of Rawalyi presented a bottle of Kewara water from Jevpur, which was accepted. A trooper arrived and reported that as several lakhs of treasure were coming in from Gurjawan to Delhi under charge of one company of foot and several cavalry, it had been attacked by, a body of Mewattis, and he had left them, still fighting, to ask for aid. Moulvie Baki ordered two companics of foot and one troop of cavalry to rescue the treasure.
May 18. The following Princes were appointed to the chief command of the mutineers : (1) Mirza Mogul; (2) Mirza Kizr Sultan; (3) Mirza Abu Bakr; (4) Mirza Abdullah. A message arrived from the Rani of Ujjain ; she was told in reply that it was optional with her to attend the Kinbg's Durbar. Two companies of sappers and miners arrived at the bank of the Jumna, and there halted. Orders were given to send sweetmeats to welcome them. Ali Khan received orders to recruit for the King's Army, but he excused himself on the plea of ignorance of his duties. Two sowars, sent with dispatches, returned stating that they had been attacked by the Gujars, who had taken their horses and torn the dispatches in pieces. A camel sowar sent on a like errand, returned having been waylaid and maltreated.
The Subahdar in command of the sappers and miners presented himself at the audience and complained that his English officer at Meerut had ordered his men to remain there; on their refusing to do so they had been fired at, and upwards Of 200 of their number had been shot down. He reported that the survivors had arrived under his command. They were ordered to take up their quarters in the Selimgarh Fort. Several bankers went to Mahabub Ali Khan and reported their inability to provide funds for the troops, as they were beggared. They were warned that unless they found funds for the use of the soldiers, these latter would without doubt plunder and take the money by force.
May 19. The King held an audience. Moulvie Jajjar Ali Thanadar attended and presented a sicca of gold mohurs as tribute money. On the coins was inscribed the following: " Sicca zad bar simu zar dar Hind, Shah wa din panah Zil-I-subhani Suraj-u-din bahadur Badshah," and on the reverse: " Sicca Sahibi Korani zad ba tayid. Allah Saya i yazdan Suraj- u -din Bahadur Badshah." 1 (1 Translation " Silver and gold coin struck by the King of India, the protec',or of religion. The sovereign SurAj u din the brave." Reverse : " Coins struck by the Lord of the Faith with the help of God. The shadow of God, the sovereign Suraj-u- din, the brave.") The King presented Mirza jawan Bakhtt with a khillat and appointed him his minister. The King gave an audience to the native officers of the mutineers, who related to him the particulars of the fight between the English and the Sepoys at Meerut, and stated that the force at Allahabad had turned away from the English. In consequence of this the Lieutenant Governor had ordered the gates of the fort at Allahabad to be closed, and no one was allowed to pass without permission. Several tliousand rupees of the Gurgaon treasure was reported to have been received from the Mewattis and was on its way to Delhi. The King was much pleased, and ordered the money to be put into his private treasury. Information received that the Maharajah of Patiala had joined the English with his army, and that the mutineer Sepoys coming from Umballa had been attacked by the Patiala troops, their weapons taken from them and the men despoiled. The mutineers, in revenge for this, attacked the house of Kumar Uji't Sing, brother of the Maharajah of Patila, and seized him. Being unable to walk, he was carried bv his servants to the King's Palace. The King, hearing of his arrival, went out to meet him, and was presented with a nazzar of gold
mohurs. The King received him with great courtesy and kindness, and remonstrated with the Sepoys, pointing out that the Kumar was on bad terms with his brother, so that in punishing him they would in no way, be punishing PatiiIa. The King set apart quarters for the Kumar. A petition was received from Nawa'b Akbar Ali Khan, of Patudiwalah, excusing his absence. He was ordered to appear as early as possible. Two European men, one child and three ladies were this day found concealed in the house of a tailor. They were seized by the mutineers, and the house was destroyed. This day the standard of the Holy War was raised by the Mahommedans in the Jumma Masjid. The people of Dharampur and the low characters of the city were concerned in this act. The King was angry, and remonstrated, because such a display of fanaticism would only tend to exasperate the Hindus.
May 20. Information received that an EngIish force was approaching. On hearing this news the cavalry and infantry were dismayed ; men began to run about taking advice from one another. In a short time it was rumoured that this information was bare of the garment of truthfulness. Scouts who had been sent out returned stark naked, having been plundered by the Gujars and stripped even of their clothing. Moulvie Mahommed Said demanded an audience, and represented to the King that the standard of Holy War had been erected for the purpose of inflaming the minds of the Mahommedans against the Hindus. The King answered that such a Jehad was quite impossible, and such an idea an act of extreme folly, for the majority of the Purbeah soldiers were Hindus. Moreover, such an act would create internecine war, and the result would be deplorable. It was fitting that sympathy should exist among all classes. It was pointed out that the Hindus were leaning towards an alliance with the English and had no sympathy with the Mahommedans, and were already holding themselves apart. A deputation of Hindu officers arrived to complain of the war against Hindus being preached. The King replied: "The Holy War is against the English; I have forbidden it against the Hindus." The King gave Mirza Amin-u -din Ahmed Khan and Hossein Ali Khan a dact with steel point. Certain men attempted this day to steal a brass fieldpiece: they were caught and ordered to be blown away from a gun. At three o'clock Hakim Ahsanullah Khan represented that the soldiers were looting in the city, and requested that they should be expelled. To get rid of them, orders were this day issued to Mirza Mogul to proceed with a strong force towards Meerut to attack any English force assembled there. Two Europeans were this day discovered and murdered by the mutineers. Mahbub Ali Khan reported that a European lady had been found and was in the hands of the mutineers, who had intended to kill her, but that he had prevented this under the authority of the Mahommedan law. The King approved of what he had done. It became known that the dispatcb of troops to Meerut to fight the English was a device of Hakim Ahsanullah Khan to rid the city of the mutineers and soldiers, who were beyond all discipline.
May 21. Under great pressure from the King, the newly appointed officers and city bankers raised one lakh of rupees for the payment of the troops. The Punjabis and merchants, who were Mahommedans and not permitted to take interest, could not be called upon to supply funds. Three sowars went into the city: a Sepoy asked one of them for his sword ; words ensued, and the sowars attacked and killed the map. His comrades went to the King, who ordered the sowar to be arrested. He was tied to a gun to be blown away, but was pardoned. News was received that the Maharajah of Patiala had contrived to gain over to his cause two regiments of Purbeahs, who had also promised to extinguish the fire of mutiny amongst their relatives serving in the regiments which had mutinied at Mecrut. News received that both Jeypur and Patiala were taking precautions to prevent the mutineers from remaining in their territories. Certain sowars and Telingas were this day reported as having been killed at Gurgaon. The King ordered Gholam Nabbi Khan, Agent to the Rajah of Jajjar, to proceed at once, and bring his master to Delhi. The Palace was this day crowded by a howling mob of men demanding pay. Representations were made to the King that to morrow being the 22nd May, the last day of the Ramzan, he should issue orders for a jehad against the Hindus. The King, together with the members of the Royal Council, replied very angrily that the greater part of the mutineers were Hindus and well armed, and that they would easily destroy all the jehadis. Information was received that Rajah Nahen Sing of Bulubgarh had made himself master of the country as far as Palwab. All the Europeans had fled, and Muha Kivani had arrived at Bulubgarhi. The King issued a proclamation by beat of drum that Hindus and Mahommedans must not quarrel. The Hindus had closed all their houses for fear of their lives. Large bodies of mutineers from Jullundur arrived this day telling of their bravery, and how they had killed their officers ; but this information was not believed, the statements made by different men differing in many respects. The King went out in state to say his prayers publicly, accompanied by Mirza Mogul Bahadur and Mirza Abu Bakr, who were in attendance. The house of Sobha Chand Kaest was this day plundered on the charge that he was in lcague with the English and supplying them with news. It was reported to the King that the mutineers had possessed themselves of much money and were buying gold mohurs at 32 rupees apiece, and that many mutineers who had left the city with money had been plundered of everything and had returned to the city with only their lives. At the evening parade 200 men were found missing. The demand for gold increasing, many of the soldiers were duped by the city Budmashes, who, leading them to one of the Mohallas, invited them to sit down while they brought them the coveted gold mohurs. Then taking the money to buy the gold, they decamped by another way and left the soldiers to deplore their loss. The soldiers revenged themselves upon the innocent people of the Mohalla. About three o'clock this day Abdul Samad Khan, the father in law of the Naavab of Jajjar, arrived with a following of 100 sowars. A body of troops was sent to Rohtak to bring in treasure.
May 23. Seeing the atrocities the mutineers were cornmitting in the city, Hakim Ahsanullah Khan induced the King to issue an order commanding the troops to leave the city, on the ground that they would only plunder and cause blood to be shed. The Jullundur troops, who had brought treasure with them, divided some of the money this day amongst themselves, and paid the balance of 80,000 rupees into the Imperial Treasury. Mirza Abu Baksh went to the Kotwali and decided on the fate of the Jews and Christians in confinement. Imperial orders were issued that, in accordance with the advice of one Runjit, a jeweller, the old coins should be withdrawn from circulation, and a new coinage introduced. The soldiers plundered the house of Kanheyal Lal, of Hyderabad, a severe fight having first taken place between the retainers of Kanheyal and the mutineers. Eventually, Mirza Kizr Sultan was induced by the offer of a bribe to go to his assistance, and thereby saved his life. One Kami Khan, a notorious Budmash, was ordered to be blown from a gun this day, but he, too, saved his life by a bribe. Nawab Mir Ahmed Ali Khan, under instructions from the King, issued orders to seize all the bankers and wealthy men of the city particularly those favourable to the English and to extort money from them for the pay of the mutineers. Mirza Mahommed Ali Bey was appointed tehsildar of the Mehrowli. Jewan Lal's garden and house were this day plundered by the soldiers, of property to the value of 2,000 rupees, on suspicion of his being in communication with the English.
May 24. Some flatterers attended the King's audience to day and informed him that all the English had fled the country, and that there were no English at Meerut except a few sick persons. Orders were again issued to General Abdul Samad to cause the attendance of the Nawab of Jajj'ar. Most of the Princes attended the audience, and presented nazzars to the King. In the evening, on the appearance of the new moon, this being the 29th of Ramzan, salutes were fired throughout the city. Some consternation was caused by the arrival of news that Sir john Metcalfe had escaped alive and had left Jajjar for Hansi Hirsar.
May 25. The King left the Palace and attended service at the Jumma Masjid, this being the festival of the Id. The Princes also attended. At the time of prayer a camel sowar arrived from the Rajah of Bulubgarh, to report that he had seen an English force advancing on the city. Great excitement prevailed, both the soldiery and the King's advisers going here and there, all uncertain what plan to follow, whether or not to leave the city. The native cavalry immediately began to saddle their horses, being chaffed by, the city Budmashes because their hands trembled in their haste to make ready. In the absence of the English, the mutineers were as lions, but on hearing of their approach, they sought places of refuge like rats in the presence of a cat. For about an hour there was great excitement in the city. Later on it was reported that the rumour of an English advance was false, and that the camel sowar had mistaken an Id procession for the advance guard of an English army. When the excitement had subsided, the principal men of the city waited on the King, as was customary on the festival of the Id. News reached the Palace that there had been a fight between the troops of the Rajah of Jajjur and some of the mutineers at Rohtak, in which the mutineers had been victorious and were returning with some of the treasure they had captured.
May 26. A discovery was made that somebody had filled the guns on the Islamgarh bastion with "kankar" and stones. Suspicion fell upon Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, and he was charged before the King of collusion with the English. The mutineers threatened to kill the Hakim, together with Mahbub Ali Khan. Swords were drawn. The two accused men swore that they were innocent, and asked how it was possible that they could have done this whilst the guns were guarded by sentries. The King shielded the accused and appeased the anger of the soldiery. About three o'clock in the afternoon, one of the Subahdars was suspected, arrested, and placed under guard. Several Gujars were apprehended for stealing gunpowder from the Magazine. Upwards of a lakh of rupees was brought in from the Government Treasury at Rohtak.
May 27. Two regiments of Punjabis demanded an audience of the King to complain that the Sahibs at Ferozepur had shot several men of the regiments to which they belonged, and requested that the King should take care that they should not be treated like their brethren at Ferozepur. They demanded guarantees from the King that he would protect them, otherwise they asked for permission to disband themselves. The King assured thern that he was able and willing to protect them. Information was brought by the troops returning from Rohtak that the magistrate and collector had escaped by some means or other. This information excited much interest. It was discovered to day that the guns on the bastions had been spiked, while others had been filled with stones, gravel, and ends of string. Great excitement prevailed, as it was clear that the English had some powerful friends in the city. About 200 armed men went to the Masjid and began to abuse the servants of the King , charging them with tampering with the guns. The King's friends retorted, denying the accusation and asking what kind of soldiers they were to allow such a thing to be done with guns under their charge. For two hours an uproar prevailed, before order could be restored. Abu Bakr was accused of disloyalty by Misr Mahommed Lal and charged with tampering with the guns. About three o'clock that afternoon it was reported that a Havildar was suspected of having filled the guns with gravel and iron nails. He was apprehended, tied to one of the guns, and there left. A body of Gujars attempted to carr off gunpowder and ammunition from one of the magazines, and were caught red handed.
May 28. At the audience it was stated to the King that the Gujars had arrived at Panipat. A statement of the military police raised for the protection of the city was handed to the King. The treasure, Rs. 175,000, brought from the Rohtak Treasury, was examined. Many of the bags were found to contain pice. The mutineers openly accused Hakim Ahsanullah Khan of intriguing with the English, and a guard was placed over him. He was told that he would no longer be permitted to hold any intercourse with the King, except in the presence of the guard. A guard was also placed at the house of Nawab Mahbub Ali Khan. All night there was an uproar, and constant panics. The following men, Hakim Ahsanullah Khan and Mahbub Ali Khan, were in attendance on the King all night. Order was issued to day to pay the mutineers,: this was done at the request of Mahbub Ali Khan: deductions were ordered to be made on account of the sums already paid to them ; nine for sowars and seven for infantry was fixed. A great uproar ensued. The cavalry demanded Rs. 30 for their pay, and no deduction for charges paid. The Subahdars of the Delhi Regiment accepted Rs. 7 as their pay. A violent, abusive altercation followed between the Meerut cavalry and the mutineers of the Delhi regiments. The Meerut sowars accused the Delhi regiments of having enriched themselves by plunder, whereas the Meerut men had by their good behaviour reaped nothing by plunder and robbery. They refused to receive Rs. 9. The foot Sepoys replied that the Meerut men were rebellious and utterly bad. Not only had they been the first to mutiny and kill their officers, whose salt they had eaten and led others to do likewise but they were desirous to quarrel and fight with their own countrymen. The Delhi Sepoys said they repented of their great fault that they had not done their duty and blown them from their guns when they first reached Delhi. Fierce passions were so raised, that at one time there was every probability of a serious encounter. The King's servants rushed in between the parties, and with great efforts quieted both sides, Mahbub Ali Khan promising the cavalry Rs. 20 pay per mensem. About 200 men arrived from Lahore and Ferozepur to join the mutineers. They came unarmed and many wounded. They were full of complaints that they had been attacked by the Maharajah of Patiala when they were sitting unarmed and unclothed on the ground, and had fled. They stated that others were in a worse plight than they were. They were slowly marching to Delhi also. A native contingent of 200 men from Gwalior arrived this day and asked to be enlisted. They boasted that they also had killed their officers. As they arrived with their uniform and accoutrements in good order, a story was spread that these men were an advance guard of' the British Army, sent to side deceitfully with the mutineers until the English should arrive, when they would join in attacking the mutineers inside the city. It was reported to the King that a number of Europeans were concealed in MoguIpura, one of the city wards. A body of soldiers was asked to find out and destroy them. The King ordered a few men to be sent, with orders to bring the Europeans, if found, to the Palace. Orders were issued accordingly. The Sepoys took the opportunity to plunder. About three o'clock a daily statement of the mutineer force was presented to the King. The following is the statement:-
Cavalry from Meerut.
Infantry from Meerut;
200 Volunteer Infantry ;
200 Infantry from Ferozepur;
200 Umballa Regiment of Purbeahs;
240 Customs Pyadahs ;
200 Gwalior Contingent
100 Mutineers from Mutineer Regiments, not classified ;
200 Mutineer Delhi Regiments.
Complaints were made to the King that some one was keeping up a correspondence with the English from inside the city. A request was made that the man should be found. It was also represented to the King that the Europeans at Mecrut were hemmed in on all sides, unable to move, uncertain how to act, and were occupied in hanging such of the mutineers as fell into their power. Koer Wazir Ali Khan was reported to be daily in the habit of visiting the entrenchments. Report was received that a contingent from Gwalior and Akbarabad was approaching the city, also that certain European troops had reached Karnaul. The General commanding the mutineer Sepoys stated that he had arranged to collect all his forces to attack the English the next day.
May 29. Halkim Ahsanullah Khan and Mahabub Ali Khan were assaulted to day by native officers of the mutineer force, in consequence of the discovery of powder and shot in the Palace Granary, collected there, it was said, for the purpose of dispatch to the English. For a long time the mutineers continued violent ; they contended that the King's Begum had arranged this in collusion with Mahommed Sadur Ali Khan. They were, however, subsequently appeased. A European was brought in to day, having been found in Kudshiah Bagh. He was first of all declared to be John Lawrence. His captors said he had been identified by an old wound in his back. On his being stripped no wound was found on his person. From him, too, did these bloodthirsty wretches draw the clothing of life. He was dressed in the garb of a Hindu fortune teller ; he carried in his hand an almanack. It was suspected he was a spy. Inquiry was instituted by whose orders ammunition and powder, which had been found in carts containing grain, had been despatched the day previously. Suspicion fell on Abu Bakr. A nazzar of four gold mchurs was received from Bahadur Yung Kh,an, of Bahadurgarh. Two regiments of infantry and 200 cavalry encamped at Selimpur on their way to Meerut.
May 30. The troops that had gone as far as Selimpur created a disturbance, and returned on the pretence that no arrangements had been made for russad (provisions) for them. Information also received that a small force of Europeans was encamped on the banks of the Hindun, intending to guard the bridge. A mounted scout, wounded by the Europeans, made his way into the city with this information, but he has since died. Troops were ordered out to engage the Europeans. At three o'clock to day, at the Durbar, Mir Hassan Ali, Vakil of the Maharajah of Patiala, was accused of being in correspondence with the English, and was taken under an armed guard with drawn swords to the Kotwali. In revenge for the trouble caused by the Maliarajah of Patiala to the mutineers, the tables were turned upon his agent. Towards evening news was received that there had been a fight with the English at the Hindun. It transpired that the artillery of the mutineers had been taken, and the gunners had fled. The firing of the English was so good that many of the rebels, covered with dust, had gone to hell; many, like birds borne on the wing, had fled back to the city. Report said that there had been a fight at close quarters with swords, in which the English were victorious. Many wounded men with sword and gun shot wounds had been brought into the city in doolies (covered stretchers) during the night.The Delhi Hindus, who had suffered much at the hands of the mutineers since their arrival in the city, expressed their joy that these wicked men, like decapitated fowls, with bloody wounds, had now themselves been tossed hither and thither, and had lost all their manhood and bravery. The English were again coming
in place of these men. The King ordered reserves to be sent to the assistance of the mutineers. Mirza Abu Bakr, who had commanded, arrived and boasted to the King of his bravery in the fight; the bystanders, however, understood that he gave himself unfounded praise. The King was much perplexed ; all night he sat, surrounded by his advisers and those that adorned his court, taking counsel, and discussing the turn that affairs had taken.
May 31. Bodies of cavalry arrived from the Hindun, and impressed every man, of every class, high and low, on whom they could lay hands, for transport service. The city was in great uproar. Many rose to resist such oppression by force of arms. Two or three European Christians or Jews were found to day, taken to the Kotwali, and killed in the customary manner. The Subahdars of the infantry came to the King and represented that a great many Mahommedans had fallen in yesterday's engagement, claiming that they had fallen in jihad (war for religion). Inquiries were made about the behaviour of the Sepoys. It was admitted, that as soon as the rebels received a volley from the English, they lost heart, and began to return to the city. Some one in attendance stated that three hundred English, and a native regiment from Umballa, had reached Nurella. A force of two thousand men was reported as being at Moal on their way to join the rebels. Some one also stated that this force had thirteen European artillerymen as prisoners with them, as the Sepoys had taken their guns. It was reported to the King that several wounded men had come in from the Hindun river, who were boasting of their capture. Later on it was reported that the English had encamped on this side of the Hindun river, and the Sepoys, unable to resist them, had retired into the city. It is said that between five hundred and one thousand Sepoys, throwing away their uniform, had left the city for their homes in the garb of fakirs (hermits). Very few artillerymen were left to work the guns on the bastions. The Sepoys set fire to day to a village called Kukagadi, through which they passed, and destroyed it. The European force is to day comfortably encamped. The rebels are reported as short of drinking water. The King is drawing on the Commissariat. The Sepoys returned to the city, hungry, thirsty, and vexed. It is reported that troops from Hansi and Karnaul are marching to the English camp.
June 1. Orders issued to clear up the quarters at Jhurnakpore, and turn out the Gujar (robber tribes) and Mewattis (predatory troops of cavalry), who had taken up their abode there, and to make room for for Luchmun Sing, the Vakil of the Maharajah of Jaypur. A quantity of sugar was also sent there for the use of the troops. A dispute followed. Certain Mahommedan soldiers had touched the dishes. In revenge the Hindu soldiers plundered the sweetmeat shops. This day Mir Chokali, the Vakil of the Maharajah of Patiala, was roughly handled, and brought before the King; he was charged with being a correspondent of the English. The King's Vakil told the soldiers they might dispose of the Vakil as they pleased. A letter received from the Rajah of Bulubgarb, saying that he had imprisoned eleven soldiers found deserting to their homes, with gold mohurs to the value Of 2,000 rupees. The orders for imprisonment were confirmed. A petition received from the prisoners, saying that five of their number had been plundered by Gujars at Kishen Dass's tank, and one had been killed. They asked for justice. News reached the Palace from Bareilly that the English had been murdered at Meerut. Great complaints of the difficulty of getting provisions into the city, owing to the shops being closed : under the King's orders soldiers were stationed in the bazaar to keep the shops open. News came from Patiala that the two native regiments sent to assist the English had joined the mutineers, and had had a fight with the English. It was reported that the whole of the Patiala force was hostile to the English. The soldiers openly remonstrated with the Maharajah for sympathizing with the English, when the natives were fighting in defence of their religion. They reminded him that he had gained nothing by his behaviour during the Punjab war, and his conduct had even been questioned by the English.
The King issued a proclamation that he would in future receive no more petitions in person. They must be sent to Mahabub Ali Khan and Nawab Hakim Ahsanullah Khan. Orders were issued for the attendance of Girwar Sing and Girdhairi Lal, bankers, who were directed to pay three lakhs of rupees to the King's treasury, under pain of punishment and the forfeiture of all their property. The bankers offered two lakhs and some thousands to buy off forfeiture of property. Fifty boatloads of salt and sugar, on their way from were reported as having been sunk in the river. News reached of the junction of four batteries of artillery (horse) from Kasauli and Umballa with the English troops at Karnauil. News came that the English had formally called upon Patiala to join his forces with theirs, and that he had agreed to do so, on condition of a remission of six annas in the rupee, i.e. three eighths of his annual tribute. News came that the Patiala troops, with two English regiments, had reached Rohtak. Orders issued to the shopkeepers, that each man should keep a supply of attah (coarse flour), of dal (a kind of pea), twenty seers (measures), and salt, in his shop. Under a second order these supplies were to be sent to the Kotwalli. The King sent for Mirza Mogul Beg, Mirza Abu Bakr, and Mirza Abdullah, and expressed his anger at their sympathy with the Sepoys, warning them that one: day they would be hanged, as soon as the English entered the city. " My fate," he said, " may be thus
expressed : -
"Kafan pahankar zindagi ki aiyyam,
Kisi bag men goozar doonga."
( "For the rest of my life 1 shall live in the seclusion of some garden, Clothed in my burial sheet.")
The mutineers learned through their spies that the forces of the Rajah of Nabha and other chiefs had joined the English at Meerut. An advance was expected, and heavy guns were taken out of the Magazine and mounted on the walls, and their range tried with ball ammunition. At the sound of firing every shop was closed. The gomashta (business agent) of Seth Lachmi Chand (a famous banker of Muttra) reported at the Palace that the late Kotwail Sharaful Hak of the city had reached Agra, and had had an interview with the Lieutenant Governor, and had given him a statement of what had occurred, of the murder of the Europeans, and other events. He had been assured by the Lieutenant Governor that the English would speedily punish these evil doers. The gomashta further reported that the Government had asked Seth Lachmi Chand for a loan of twenty five lakhs of rupees for the current expenses of the war.
June 3. All the nobles of the city attended the King's Levee. It was reported that nine regiments of British infantry, three regiments of cavalry, with field batteries and siege train, had arrived at Alipur. The mutineer chiefs declared their ability to defend the city. The King inquired at what points it was proposed to oppose the English. The places stated were at Dhiraj Ke Pahari Kenghur, Purtosa, near the garden of Mahaldar also at Selimpur. The forces to be collected at each spot were to be specified, and an early attack on the city was anticipated. The conduct of two regiments at Lahore was discussed ; they had secretly expressed their intention of joining the mutineers, but had been disarmed by Sir John Lawrence. It was reported that the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab had visited the Maharajah of Patiala, and had returned to Lahore. In the PunjAb, it was stated, there was a feeling of peace and security, and little sympathy with the mutiny. The King issued orders that no one was to take or remove weapons out of the Magazine without orders from Mirza Amin-u-din Khan. Certain Moguls presented themselves, and asked permission to raise the Flag of jehad to arouse the inhabitants to oppose the English. The same evening all the remaining bungalows were destroyed and fired. Gazi-u-din Nukur, the zemindar of Poonah, and Satgaon, issued notification that no supplies were to be given to the English ; every straggler from the English Army was to be murdered, if caught ; the village obeying these instructions to be held hereafter rent free. Other zemindars took: similar action, showing their hatred of the English and sympathy with the King. News received from FerozepLIr that the English had driven three native regiments out of the city.
June 4. A meeting of the bankers was held under the orders of the King, and one lakh of rupees was subscribed, and a promise given of a second Ialh, payable in four days. The King received information that the bridge over the Canal had been broken down, and a battery erected there. Amin-u-din Khan returned from his walk. A palki bearer returned from Hissar, and reported that five companies stationed there had mutinied, and three hundred Mewattis had joined them. They had murdered the collector, and after plundering the treasury were on their way to Delhi. Later on in the day this news was confirmed by two sowars; further, that the mutineers had reached Bouli Serai with the treasure. The King ordered a cavalry escort to be sent out immediately to bring in the treasure, which arrived the same evening. The mutineers were ordered to camp near the Jail. A Chobdar arrived from Muttra, and reported that one regiment had mutinied at that station, and was in a disordered condition, but was marching on to the city to join the mutineers. Six thousand rupees were paid out of the Treasury by Nawab Mahabub Ali Khan, as pay for the mutineers. The Agent for Rawulji presented the King with a basket of Jeypur keonas (choice fruit), which was graciously accepted. A sowar arrived to report that a company of infantry bringing treasure from Gurgaon, had been attacked by Mewattis. Orders were issued to Moulvie Mahommed Bakr to proceed at once to rescue the treasure with two companies of infantry and one of cavalry.
June 5. Provisions ordered to be sent to the jail for the mutineers from Hissar. A guard was ordered to be placed over the house of Makhan Lal. A letter was ordered to be written to the Nawab of Jajjar to come at once with all the troops he could gather and convey the King, in the garments of a Fakir, to the Kutub. A Brahmin from Delapur came and reported that when the Sepoys abandoned their guns, the Gujars carried off the artillery bullocks, and that the English had in their turn taken the bullocks from them, and had employed them in dragging the guns to Meerut. A Havildar deserted from the English force encamped at Alipur. He wore a gold necklace round his neck ; he addressed the mutineers, advising them to submit to the English. He was ill treated, plundered of his ornaments, taken to the Lahore Gate, and there killed. It was reported that Laku Sing, Thanadar of Alipur was providing rassad (supplies) for the English ; his two brothers were seized in their house in Kuria Mohalla. They pleaded innocence, and said that they had long since separated from their brother, and had no connection with him. On the evidence of the neighbours the brothers were released.
June 6. It was reported to the King that the salaries of all the servants had been paid. The King was pleased. A carter reported that the forces of the Mahar~jah of Patiala and of the Rajah of Jhind, and the English, were to be seen between Umballa and Delhi ; also that heavy artillery was seen on the road drawn by elephants. The mutineers represented to the King that it was rumoured throughout the city that the English would enter the city that night , and requested orders that the city wall might be lined with soldiery. The King issued the necessary orders. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan was ordered to serve out rations. One hundred maunds of attah and dal were taken from Dwalli, Baniyah. A letter was received from Lahore to the address of Gissaram and Tara Chand, intimating that all was peace and quiet there. The shopkeepers at the Delhi Gate of the city were turned out of their shops, which were taken possession of by the mutineers as barracks. The city Kotwal was ordered to have ample provisions ready. The officers in command of the mutineers reported to the King that twenty four guns had been sent to the front to oppose the English advance. Reports were received that treasure was on its way from Hansi, and that a force of three regiments, with some thousand irregular troops, comprised of Mewattis were on the road to stop the English. Rumour had it that the English had taken three lakhs of rupees from the bankers at Paniput and Karnaul. A story was spread at Patiala, Umbailla, and Kaithal, that the mutineers were on their way to attack and plunder these places. All the approaches to the city, and the bridges, were destroyed by the mutineers
June 7. About 400 Moguls presented themselves before the King, and stated that they had raised the Flag of Jehad and were going to fight the English. They then went off in the direction of the artillery lines. About 450 mutineers arrived from Lucknow. The officers of two regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, which weic stationed at Lucknow, presented themselves, and expressed their sympathy with His Majesty's cause. It was reported that they were marching on Delhi, having heard of the King's victorious reputation, and after having plundered and destroyed all the bazaar, magazine, and treasury. Seventy sowars arrived from Alipur, and reported that they had defeated the English force, and pursued it for six miles. Orders were issued through the police that each sweetmeat seller was instantly to prepare twelve rupees' worth of sweetmeats1, ( 1 The giving of sweetmeats as a reward for services, or as a solace, or as a gift, is common throughout India. Even condemned criminals are allowed a feast of sweetmeats on the morning of their execution) to be sent out to the victorious troops, to reward them for their bravery. A report was received that the English had attempted to destroy a native regiment at Agra, in consequence of which the Sepoys had mutinied, and, after killing all Europeans, were making their way to Delhi. News was received of villages burned by the English, and of the execution of four zemindars, who were very popular, for insulting conduct to an English lady. News received that sixteen carts of provision for the English forces had been seized by the Gujars. The carts were taken to the King, and were plundered by city Musalmans under the King's orders.
June 8. Kazi Faiz-ullah Khan was ordered to collect all the bullocks, for the purpose of taking supplies to the troops. A sowar arrived, and reported that fifty Sepoys had been killed that day in a skirmish with the English. Forty camels were stolen from the English lines, and brought into the city this day. Dispatches came from Jajjar, intimating that a regiment at Jajjar had mutinied, and murdered Sawul Sing, and were intending to kill the Nawab, who had concealed himself. The report was received of the murder of Mr. Mutton by mutineers from Bulubgarh. A statement came from the Kotwal of the city intimating that troops had started from the city. A letter was received from Lahore stating that a fight had taken place between the mutineers and the English, and that Maharajah Golab Singh of Cashmere, and his two sons, had arrived at Lahore, and joined the Entglish. A newspaper from Peshawur was received which stated that Sardar Dost Mahommed Khan had returned to Cabul, and had placed one fort in a state of defence, in case of attack from the Persians. News received that the Maharajah of Patiala had undertaken the administration of the whole country from Umballa to Karnaul. Fifty Sepoys went to the house of Pia Mull Maswari, and charged him with supplying the English with supplies, threatening his life. They seized his son, and brought him before the King.
June 9. A sowar arrived from Badli Sarai, to inform the King that the mutineers would engage the English that day at midday, and to tell the, King that the English had sent spies into the camp of the mutineers in the disguise of the 4th Native Cavalry, who were acting as the King's body guard. A fight had ensued, and the English had taken possession of the camp of the mutineers. The mutineers this day retired into the city, abandoning the country side to the English. The mutineers reported a loss this day of 400 men. The English advanced as far as Mubhrak Bagh, on the road to Sowari Mandai. Heavy firing continued all day till four p.m. Seventeen guns fell into the hands of the English during the day. Chia Mull presented himself before the King, and petitioned for the release of the son of Pia Mull, on the ground that his father had daily supplied rations to the mutineers, and had not in any way befriended the
English. The bastions were fully manned, and the troops ready at their stations. The city people mounted on to the roofs of their houses, and watched with great fear the distant firing. Only Mahommedans were killed in this fight, and no Hindus. Ammunition and supplies were constantly despatched in the direction of the battlefield. The city people poured volleys of abuse upon the mutineers, who were seen returning to the city, accusing them of cowardice ; while the troops at the city gates abused the native cavalry, which returned early in the day and took refuge in the city. Mirza Mogul issued orders to the troops to be on the alert. Owing to the result of the fight to day, the soldiers seemed to lose all heart, although Mirza Mogul, in his general orders to the troops, stated that, as a castle in the game of chess, he was firmly seated beyond all fear of check being given. Yet the mutineers were panic stricken. It is much to be regretted that the English did riot advance this day. Had they done so, they would have taken the city, for the gates were open. The city people expressed their surprise at their holding back in the way they did.
June 10. The King issued a proclamation for the forcible opening of all the shops in the city. A servant of Wali Mahommed arrived from Lahore, and narrated that there had been a fight between the English and the mutineers, and that the shops of Wali Mahommed, Hossein Baksh, and Kutubuddin had been plundered. News arrived of outbreaks at Rawalpindi and Umritsar. All approaches to the city were reported to day as dangerous. News received from Bombay that Sir John Lawrence had written to Bombay for assistance in troops, and that Bombay troops would arrive at Delhi towards the end of June. It was reported that the Bombay Government had advised that no attack should be made on the city until the arrival of the Bombay troops, and even if attacked the army should remain on the defensive. General Sammud Khan attended in answer to a summons from the King. He agreed to attack the English if placed in command of the King's troops. The King ordered his appointment as Commander in Chief, with the presentation of the usual khilat. After repeated assurances of his loyalty, and having given the usual present of one gold mohur and five rupees cash, he retired. A proclamation was issued to the army to muster and advance under the generalship of Sammud Khan, when victory would be their reward. About ten o'clock a force of 1,800 Sepoys and twelve horse guns issued from the Lahore Gate and Cashmere Gate. On reaching the English position Sammud Khan commnicated with the English, to say that he had been sent by the Rajah of Jajjar to join the English force. This feint did not succeed, and an order was issued to attack.
About 100 English were killed ; the English then pushed forward their artillery. The General came under fire, and immediately retreated, leaving several fieldpieces behind him. The force retreated through the Cashmere Gate into the city. Artillery fire was then opened from the Cashmere Gate bastions. The whole force by the evening returned within the city walls. The heads of the Europeans killed in the fight were cut off, and paraded through the city. A shell frorn the English guns fell on the house of one Sadat Khan, destroying and killing many of the inmates. About fifty Sepoys went to the house of Rajah Ajit Sing, and brought him prisoner before the King. He was threatened with death unless he used his influence over his brother, who was siding with the English. Ahsanullah Khan pleaded for the Rajah that he was not responsible for his brother's conduct : that for some time there had been an ill feeling between the brothers, and in consequence of this, the Rajah Ajit Sing had taken up his residence at Delhi and left Patiala. The Rajah threw himself at the King's feet and implored his Protection. The King, gave orders for his immediate release.
June 11. Kuli Khan, formerly an artillery man in the Service of the English Government at a salary of twenty eight rupees distinguished himself by his exertions, keeping up the bastions at the English ; the whole city was full of his praises. The King , cheered by the prowess of this man, ordered one hundred maunds of gunpowder to be prepared. Saltpetre and charcoal were purchased. A report received that the Lieutenant Governor of Agra, hearing that Delhi had not fallen, had ordered his dak 1 (1 A dakgharri is a posting carriage. Ordering his Dak to be laid meant making arrangements toleave Agra.) to to be laid. The Commander-in-Chief was reported to have come down from Simla to join the army, and was expected to be before Delhi On the 12th. A confidential report was received this day, by the King that when the news of the Mutiny reached the Queen of England she ordered 24,000 troops to be despatched. About two o'clock to day the English established a battery at Kaband and opened fire at the Cashmere Gate, The fire of the King's artillery prevented the English from completing their design ; the English lost all courage, and were much disheartened. A force Of 2,000 men was ordered to the Cashmere Gate. Two cavalry sowars arrived in the city and begged for reserves to be sent up at once, as the King's troops were hard pressed. Reserves were ordered up, but the attack which the English had intended was abandoned, and they had retired to their encampment. It was reported to the King that it was the intention of the English chiefs to attack the Kudsia Bagh; 21,000 men were kept under arms in readiness all that night. The artillery fire of the English caused destruction this day in the city, killing many people on their housetops and injuring many houses. Four English were found this day concealed in the house of a Khansamah, and were killed by the mutineers.
June 12. Piari Lal was taken forcibly before the King, and charged with supplying sulphur to the En lish. Certain sowars arrived from Badli Serai to announce that five companies Of Sepoys, 300 sowars, and 6000 Rupees of treasure might be immediately expected. The treasure shortly after wards arrived ; the troops escorting it were ordered to encamp in the Shumru- Ke- Begami Gardens. The King expressed his anger at the apathy of the mutineers, who were making no serious attempt to drive off the English ; the King chided the chief at not having gained a single victory.
June 13. The whole force was mustered, including the sappers and miners, and the King's Bodyguard, and marched out of the Cashmere Gate to give battle to the English. Certain thieves plundered the house of a Thainadar in Chaora Alohalla, and wounded several of the household. The Thanadar seized one of the thieves. A sowar arrived from the battlefield and reported that the Sepoys had reached the Kaband, and came under the artillery fire of the English. The mutineers having lost twenty cavalry and sixty Sepoys by the fire, the whole force was retreating, the regiments reported as having set the example being the mutineers from Umballa.
June 14. Buldeo Sing, the brother of Lachman Sing, Thanadarir of Alipur, was seized and brought to the Kotwali. He was accused of sympathizing with the English. He was shot, and his body suspended from a tree. Thirteen bakers residing at the Cabul Gate were dragged from their houses and killed, on being suspected of supplying bread to the English. The shop of Jamna Dass was plundered because he sold attah at a high price. The mutineers committed many other oppressive acts this day. About three o'clock in the afternoon 6,000 Sepoys with twelve guns marched out of the city. A fight ensued, in which loss occurred on both sides. Reserves were sent up. Heavy artillery fire lasted the whole night. The houses near Sadut Khan's house suffered severely from the English fire. The city people were angered and put to great difficulties. Reports came of the oppressions practised by the Gujars on travellers. The city people began to be anxious, and were perplexed at the situation. On one hand there were enemies among their own countrymen, both inside and outside the city, and on the other there was the overhanging shadow of the coming attack of the enraged English. A Mahout deserted with his elephant from the English camp, and made his way to the Palace. The King took the elephant for himself. On the morning of this date, Nawab Mahabub Ali Khan passed away to paradise. Elephants and troops accompanied the body to the grave. The dead was buried at the Masjid of Karim-ulla-Shah, near the Khanum Bazar, with great pomp and ceremony. The body was followed by all the nobles of the city.
June 15. Seven cannonballs fell early this morning in the King's palace. The King threatened to leave the city and retire to the Kdtub, unless the troops left the city. Under pressure, ten thousand mutineers were let out of the city at midnight to attack the English camp. Many, fell on both sides, but the troops could make no way against the heavy fire of the English, and returned in great disorder to the city. The city people were apprehensive that the Magazine would be blown up by the English fire. More troubles for want of supplies. Shopkeepers seized and harassed. Fifty coolies sent to pull down the house of the Maharajah of Indore. Proclamation sent to all Durbaris to attend the King's Durbar on the third day after the death of Mahabub Ali Khan. A sowar arrived from Nimuch to report the approach of 500 mutineers from that station.
June 16. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Mir Fateh Ali (officer in charge of the throne), and Bodhau Sahib (sic), and other nobles went to the Masjit:l and offered prayers in honour of the late Mahabub Ali Khan. A sowar reported that there had been an engagement between the Sepoys and the English, in which 200 men had fallen. A body of cavalry came in from Nimuch with treasure. Seven persons who had been imprisoned on charges of friendship with the English were this day released. Three men, taken to be spies, were killed by the troops. A woman and a resident of Mulliwara were killed in the city by a stray cannonball from the English, lines.
June 17. A proclamation was issued selling the Bank House 1 (1 The Bank House was the property of Mrs. Dyce Somba, afterwards Lady Forrester.) and some opium. Several kaharies and khatris petitioned the King regarding the oppressions practised by the soldiers, and the stoppage of provisions from entering the city. On this the King sent for the chief of the mutineers, and threatened to take poison, unless greater discipline were enforced and the oppressions discontinued. The chief promised immediate compliance, and said that there should be no further occasion for similar complaints. An order was issued to Kazi Faiz-ullah-Beg to prepare provisions for the troops that were about to attack the English. Forty cannonballs were picked up this day fired from the English camp. Many persons were killed by them. A very large cannon was taken from the Magazine, and mounted, to reply to the English fire. The chief attended the Durbar, and reported that three batteries had been constructed at Dir Chuki Hill, and also on the Idgah and that they intended to attack the English. Later on in the day the English attacked the Idgah Battery 2 (2Major H. Tornbe, B.H.A., commanded in this affair) , and drove the mutineers out of it, capturing two guns. Seven carts laden with lime were despatched for repairs to Selimgarh. Several persons desiring to send letters, presented themselves before permission to do so. It was refused. A cannon, lying at the door of the Palace since the time of Shah Jehan, was taken by the mutineers and mounted at the Lahore Gate. It being a long range gun, it was intended to annoy the English troops marching from Agra.
June 18. Rumour spread that the "2nd Regiment" at Nasirabad had mutinied and murdered their officers, and had arrived at Delhi with treasure and ammunition. We learned from some of the men that the Maharajah of Jeypur had supplied them with rations on their march under great pressure. They stated that the Maharajah would give no assistance to the King. It was reported that Lala Pershad was recruiting for the English. News reached the Palace that the native troops at Cawnpore had murdered their officers, and were on their way to Delhi ; also that 1,500 Europeans came via Jeypur voa Nasirabad to Agra.
June 19. The officers of the Nasirabad troops attended the King's audience, and agreed to attack the English next day.
June 20. The Nasirabad troops attacked the English, and a severe engagement followed, in. which many were killed on both sides ; a shell set fire to a house. A proclamation issued to send provisions to the army at Singharh. Again the troops attacked the English, and continued the engagement until the evening. A cannonball entered the house of Ganesha Lal, a shopkeeper, killing his servant. A Jathni of Dhiraj Pahari took a house in the Billi Mohalla. Seven Sepoys went to his house to plunder: the neighbours turned out in force ; a fight ensued, and several of the Sepoys were wounded. Reinforced, the Sepoys returned to the attack, and further plundered the houses of the sons of Umed Sing and Ram Sahai Mull. Many persons were killed by the cannonballs which fell into the city.
June 21. Several thousand mutineers attacked the English camp this morning; the engagement lasted a long while, but there but there was no victory. All the night cannonballs flew into the city. A sowar came to announce the arrival of three regiments of foot and cavalry from Jullundur, who offered their services to the King; they were ordered to encamp outside the city. Nine carts of provisions for the English were intercepted and brought into the city. It was rumoured that the mutineers from Bareilly and Cawnpore were marching on Delhi. A force left the city in the afternoon to attack the English.
June 22. The three regiments from jullundur arrived, and were encamped in the Kudsia Bagh Garden. Their officers attended the Durbar, and complained that they had been attacked on the road by the forces of Patiala, which they had defeated, taking one gun. They explained that they had reached Delhi by a roundabout way through fear of the English, whose forces were daily increasing. The native officers were boasting that they had murdered the Collector of Nasirabad, and had taken his elephant, which they had brought with them. The King flattered them, saying they were great Bahadurs, whose like was not to be met with. About fifty Sepoys entered the house of Jogul Kishore, son of Kaniya LaI (news-writer of Hyderabad), with a view to plunder, but were deterred by Mirza Mogul. They then plundered the Mohalla of Mir Ashik.
June 23. A gun constructed in the reign of Shah Jehan was taken, and mounted. When ready a he goat was tied to the mouth, and twenty five seers of sweetmeats placed inside, and a necklace of flowers hung round the muzzle. Several Brahmins and astronomers were summoned, and directed to consult their almanacks as to whether the mutineers would be victorious.The astronomers replied that great disturbance would last for a year. Several thousands would die, but the shadow of Peace and Security would spread over the land from 1916 Sambat. Beyond this the astronomers would say nothing. News arrived that two regiments of native infantry at Calcutta, afraid of losing their caste, had fled to Nepaul. News came that a Brahmin had been hanged outside the city of Alighur, under orders of the Collector, for spreading a rumour that a battle had been fought at Delhi between the English and the mutineers, in which there had been great slaughter. News arrived of fresh troops from Bombay coming to swell the English force, and that twenty regiments of English for India had started from England. An order was issued to the Kotwal to supply sweetmeats and provisions for the troops, who had gone out to attack the English. All day there was fighting. About four p.m. the troops returned to the city. A proclamation by beat of drum was issued, that such a cannon would be fired that night that the concussion was expected to level all the streets and dilapidated houses in the city. People were warned not to sleep in such houses.
Jnue 24. The Sepoy sirdars attended the King's Durbar, and reported that they had engaged the English the whole day, till bugle call on both sides stopped the firing. They also complained that as they were returning to the city, a shot was so carelessly fired by Kulii Khan from the city that three Sepoys had been badly, wounded and several camp followers killed. He (Kuli Khan) had been placed under arrest, and was brought before the King. He was charged with being in collusion with the English. It was rumoured that Luckman Seth was enlisting troops for the safety of Agra, and had sent bodies of men there. Hakim Ahsanullah KhAn reported that the mutineers were plundering plundering the town, and had entirely depopulated Dip Chah Pahari Mohalla, and Tellewari. It was rumoured eported that the Cawnpore troops had gone to attack the English at Meerut. A battle had been fought, with some loss and no result. News received of the arrival of 1,500 English from NasirabAd at Agra.
June 25. Hakim Ahsanullah. Khan, Nazir Hassan Mirza, and Mahbub Ali Khan, Mozuffer ul Dowlah, and the chief city officers presented themselves at the audience to pay their respects. The sirdars of the Sepoys also attended. The bad behaviour of the Sepoys was referred to. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan was accused by Ali Khan and Kadir Baksh, in charge of the Serais, of releasing the bad characters who had been captured red handed for plundering, and had taken bribes from them. They pleaded for better arrangements for the peace and security of the city, and represented that all trade was at a standstill. A zemindar came in from Bagpat and presented a nazzar of one rupee. He reported that one thousand Sepoys of Maharajah Surdip Sing were plundering that portion of the city where he lived, and were constructing a bridge over the Jumna river. He asked for a body of troops to drive thetn out of the place ; the King referred him to Mirza Kizr Sultan. The King also issued an order to have Ali Khan and Kadir Baksh turned out of the city for calumniating Hakim Ahsanullah KhaIn. The King's orders were this day issued to Abdul Sulif Khan to send Nawab Mustaffa Khan under safe escort to Delhi. Four hundred Jehadis from Gurgaon and other districts arrived at Delhi, and presented themselves before the King. Cannonballs were falling into the city all day. A syce and several persons were killed. The traders of Churi Mohalla petitioned the King in person that gunpowder was being manufactured in the house of the Shumru Begum, near their houses ; they expected any moment to be blown into the air. The King consoled them, and promised to stop the manufacture. A council of war was held, consisting of Makhan Lal, Hakim. Ahsandllah Khan, and Nawhb Ahmed Kuli Khan. The King addressed the sirdars of the Sepoys, pointing out that they were destroying the kingdom that had lasted for 500 years, and remarked sarcastically that when they went out to fight the English they returned " topsy turvy." He offered up a prayer, saying: "Alas ! this is the will of God that I and my kingdom shall be destroyed." " I wish you all to leave the town." News reached the Palace that the Collector of Bijnour had made over charge of the city of Najibabad to Nawab Mahmud Khan, and had himself gone to Rurki. News arrived that the Bareilly force was at Shahjahanpur.
June 26.- One hundred men from Bhopal, and two hundred from other places, this day came into the city. The King received them. They were ordered to encamp outside the city. A man came from Benares ; he also was ordered to live outside the city. Two regiments of infantry and 200 cavalry, and two guns, were sent to engage the troops of the Maharajah of Jhind. Mirza Mogul was thrown out of his buggy in driving back from the Delhi Gate, and received a slight injury. News received that the Gwalior contingent, having murdered their officers, were marching on the city. It was reported to the King that the troops who had left the city to fight the English, were returning, as the air did not agree with them (sic lit.). The King issued orders to the effect that the troops, having failed to drive away the English, should leave the city, and go elsewhere. It was rumoured that 5,000 wine distillers had joined the English troops.
June 27. - An engagement began early this morning at Kudsia Bagh and Idgah, lasting all day, and many persons were killed. A petition was received from Bagpat that the troops of Jhind had been defeated, the bridge they had been constructing was broken, and the troops sent from Delhi would return early the next day. An order was issued to Hakim Ahsandllah to move the gunpowder manufactory from Begum Shumru's house. Four hundred men were assembled outside the Cashmere Gate. The English artillery fire told heavily upon them. It was rumoured that the Commander in Chief of the English had that morning been killed in the fight, and his body buried before. the Cashmere Gate. It was rumoured that there had been a quarrel between the English and the Gurkhas. Thirty sowars of the Gwalior contingent reached the city, and reported that they were the advance guard of the whole Gwalior contingent. They were ordered to encamp outside the city. The King informed Mirza Mogul that the royal treasury was empty, and no further pay would be issued to the troops. The force returned from Bagpat, and reported that they had brought the Thanadar and Matsadi back in custody, as they had been supplying provisions to the English. It transpired that the troops sent for the protection of Bagpat had plundered the city. The English this day failed in blowing up one of the city bastions. They had mined the Customs House with this object.1 (1 Quite imaginary ; the English were never near enough to do anything of the sort.)
June 28. - The whole number of the leading inhabitants of Delhi waited on the King to pay their respects. A letter was received from Mirza Mogul, saying that the 25,000 rupees given for the pay of the Sepoys had already been distributed, and 2,500 rupees was still due. The King ordered the balance to be sent. A man was caught digging a mine in a house in the Palace, in connivance with the English , 1 (1 All imaginary) to blow up the Palace wall; he was blown from a gun at Selimgarh, as a warning to others. Several persons were killed by cannonballs falling in the city. The officers of the army complained of the inconvenience they were subjected to in camping during the rains outside the city. The King permitted them to reside in the city till the rainy season should pass. All the troops encamped outside the Delhi, Lahore, and Turcoman Gates returned to the city, where they occupied the Civil Courts, the Mahommedan College, and the houses in the city. Badges engraved with the King of Delhi's name were this day issued to the Guards occupying the Police Station, the Kutub, and other places.
June 29. - The King held a levee which was numerously attended : the prospects of the war were discussed for several hours. The officers of the regiments from Nimuch reported that two regiments of native infantry, 600 cavalry, and one battery of artillery, with one lakh and some odd thousands of rupees, would arrive in the city in a week. Representative officers from the Bareilly force presented themselves, and reported that the force would arrive in Delhi in the course of three days. A letter was received from Wallidad Khan, of Balagarh, asking the aid of one regiment of foot and some guns from the Bareilly force: he was told to raise a force to preserve peace and order. Mitan Lal, Matsadi of Bag Begum. Shumru, received notice that all his employer's property had been confiscated by the State, and that all rents in future were to be paid into the Royal Treasury. A note was written to the officers of the regiments, asking for a guard to be put over Luckmiput Seth's house, as it had been plundered by the Sepoys. Reports made to the King that all the wood lying on the banks of the Jumna was being taken to cook their dinner with. Orders issued to prevent this. Report received from the Thanadar of Shalidara Police Station that the Bareilly forces would arrive to-morrow. Orders passed for collection of provisions. Representative officers of regiments from Benares present at the audience. They reported that their regiments were halted at the tomb of Safdar Jang, awaiting orders. They were told to halt until further orders, and that provisions would be sent there for them. Four hundred rupees collected as rent of shops in the Chandni Chowk, and paid into the treasury. A man was apprehended, being found in possession of ammunition stolen from the Magazine. Petition received from Rajah Nahar Sing, chief of Bulubgarh, that, if permitted, he would send all the property of his cousin, Nawul Sing, to Bulubgarh. Permission granted. Twenty sowars arrived from Cawnpore, and reported that for several days a fight had raged between. the English and the natives. All the English had in the end been put to the sword, and the city was in the possession of the troops. Mirza Mogul held a council of war at his house. It was rumoured that four spies visiting the English camp had been seized and examined. They told the English that the man sent to fire the mine under the city walls had been blown away. On hearing this the spies were shot. The forces of the Nawab of Jajjar wished to join the religious cause. Military guards placed at all police stations.
June 3o. - Engagement with the English at Suneri Mundai. Officers of the forces engaged attended the King's levee, and expressed their loyalty and their determination to fight the English to the best of their ability. They boasted at some length of the prowess of the Sepoys. Five hundred fanatics returned with an elephant they had taken from the English, and presented it to the King. A mine was discovered being dug, near the Cashmere Gate. The man caught was hung before the Kotwali on a tree. A proclamation was issued that all friends of the English would be treated in this manner. A man disguised in the garb of a fakir was seized at the Ajmere Gate, and being suspected to be a spy from the English camp, he was killed. It was rumoured that a force Of 200 English had set fire to and burned down the Mohalla of Tellewaria, Dheragpahari, and Saidepura. One Englishman rode up to the Lahore Gate, and fired at the sentry with a pistol ; he then rode away. A heavy storm of wind occurred this day, in which the Jumna Bridge sank. Several carts laden with goods, on their way to Bulubgarh, were seized, on the suspicion that they held ammunition ; they were taken back to the city, but, on being searched, nothing was found, and they were released. The Bareilly force was reported to have reached Ghaziabad. Orders issued to repair the Darogah Bridge.
July1.- Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Nawab Hassan Ali Khan, and other sirdars attended the audience. Two messengers arrived from Bijah Bai as the bearers of a nazzar of one lakh of rupees for the King. The messengers complained that the. Gujars had plundered them of the letter of which they, were the bearers near Furidabad, and that they had torn up the papers. The King ordered them to be given a present of one rupee each. News reached the Palace of the arrival of the Bareilly force on the banks of the Jumna. The broken bridge prevented the Delhi force from Crossing over to the Delhi side of the river. Four hundred coolies and two companies of sappers and miners were sent to repair the bridge. Mir Fateh Ali appointed to repair the bridge. The King examined the Bareilly forces across the river through a telescope, and remarked upon the elephants and cavalry. Khan Hassan Ali reported that six shells had been fired from the city into the Englsih camp, of which three had burst on the main road and one in the camp. Orders were issued for the dispatch of 100 shells to the native batteries. Hakim Ahsanullah ordered to hasten the reconstruction of the Jumna Bridge. Heavy fire poured into the city. Many casualties among the inhabitants reported. The English fire was chiefly directed on the battery, commanded by Kuli Khan. Two artillery rnen and seven others were killed ; one gun dismounted and rendered useless. Expectations of an attack from the English. The King summoned all the leaders and ordered them to take a large force to meet the English outside the gate. A force consistent, of several thousand men marched out of the city and took up its position at Idgah and Dum Dumma. The Nasirabad contingent were employed in mounting heavy guns in the batteries. Munshi Kishen Lall appointed Bakhshi of the Chowkidars (paymaster of the police or municipal watchmen). The bridge was reported ready for the passage of the Bareilly force on the morrow. Mahommed Kuli Khan ordered to receive the force and welcome it. Nawab Bahadur Jang borrowed a sum of 6,000 rupees from the Nawab of Jajjar for the pay of the troops. Two men ordered to pull down the houses in the Suneri Mundai.
July 2. - Nawab Ahmed Kuli Khan went out to receive the Bareilly force. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, General Sannad Khan, Ibrahim Ali Khan, Ghulam Ali Khan, and others were present. Mahommed Kdli Kha'n, with Mahommed Bakht Khan, 1 (1 Bakht Khan was the chief native officer of a field battery of artillery, all the gunners being natives. It was rather a famous battery, as it had served at Jalalabad under Sale in the first Afghan War, and had a mural crown as an honorary decoration on its guns. Bakht Khan had served in it at Jalalabad. he was much sought for after the Mutiny, but he was never found or heard of. He was not killed in action, or we should have heard of it ; and one or two of the guns were never recovered: they will turn up some day. – Note by G. H. M. Rickett, C,B.) commander of the Bareilly force, solicited orders for the employment of the force. The King's orders were that the inhabitants of the city must not be plundered. The King said it was no use his giving orders, as they were never obeyed, and he had no one to enforce them, but his decree was that the English should be caused not to exist. Mahommed Bakht Khan offered his services as Commander-in-Chief of the forces, with a view to enforce general discipline. The King grasped his hands in token of friendship. On returning to the troops Bakht Khan acquainted the Subahdars with the King's acceptance of his service, and asked thein whom they would obey. The Subahdars swore allegiance and obedience to Mahommed Bakht. After the levee the King gave the General a private audience. The General pointed out that he was the descendant of the same family as the King of Delhi, and asked the King to satisfy himself that this was true. The King replied there was no necessity for inquiry, for a greater man than the General did not exist. The General replied 1 shall be entitled to the honour of Bahadur when I shall have driven the English out of Delhi and Meerut." Orders were issued to the Darogah of Nawab Abdul Rahman Khan, of Jajjar, to vacate the Kalla Mahall in favour of the troops. The order was carried out. The General Bakht Khan visited Prince Mirza Mogul, and after a long consultation returned to camp. A shield, a sword, and the title of General were bestowed on Mahommed Bakht Khan, and he was appointed Commander-in -Chief of the whole of the forces. A proclamation was issued ordering the attendance of all officers in command of regimetns to receive instructions from Mahommed Bakht Khan. Mirza Mogul was appointed Adjutant General. Mahommed Bakht informed the King that if any of the Princes attempted to plunder the city, he would cut off their noses and cars. The King replied: "You have full authority. Do whatever seems good unto you." In accordance with this order the Kotwal of the city was informed that if any more plundering took place he would be hanged. Soldiers plundering were to be arrested. Mahommed Bakht Khan, reported that he was ready outside the city with the following force :
Four regiments of foot,
Seven hundred cavalry,
Six horse artillery guns,
Three hundred spare. horses taken from the Government Stud at Hanpir,
One hundred Jehadis.
The force had received six months' pay in advance. He reported also that he had treasure to the extent of four lakhs. He declared he would not trouble the King for any assistance, and if his troops were victorious he would pay in any surplus money to the King's treasury. The King ordered 4,000 rupees to be distributed among the Bareilly troops for festivities (ziafut). All officers commanding detachments of troops were ordered to place themselves under General Bakht Khan's orders. Similar orders were issued to the Agra force. The General,ordered a proclamation, by beat of drum, that all shopkeepers were to keep arms, and that no one should leave his house unarmed. Persons having no arms to apply to headquarters for them, and they would be given them free of charge. Any soldier caught plundering was to have his arm severed from his body. All persons having, ammunition to give it over to the Magazine, under pain of severe punishment. The police officers were ordered to cause all the respectable inhabitants of Delhi to attend the General levee. The General inspected the Magazine, and ordered the stores and material to be properly arranged. Complaints were made that the house of Rai Ransuram Dass, deputy collector, had been plundered. Reports received that several thousand men of the Rajah of Bikanir had arrived at Hansi Hissar, had attacked bands of soldiers and had killed a great number of them, and had restored peace and security in those places. They were about to march to Rohtuk. The postal line was open from Hissar to Saresar. Dispatches from Lucknow that the troops had risen and had surrounded all the English in Muchi Bawan. Dispatches received from Gwalior that the contingent wished to mutiny, but were kept together by the influence of Maharajah Jya Jee Rao Singhia, who counselled
the soldiers to remain with him and not to join the army at Delhi. At eight o'clock this night General Bakht Khan visited the King, and long remained in consultation with him, Zinat Mehal, Hakim Ahsanullah Khan and Ahmed Kuli Khan.
July 3.- Haksan Ali Khan, Rajah Ahmed Sing's son, and other sirdars attended the King's levee. A petition was presented by the city residents complaining that General Mahommed Bakht Khan had summoned thern to attend at his house and had sent the summons through the police. They felt hurt and maltreated. They prayed that the order should be recalled, and if they (the petitioners) were wanted and were politely summoned by letter they would attend. The General, being called upon for an explanation, said that he had not sent for the bankers of the city, but had sent police to warn them to be ready armed. On this same date (July 3) orders were issued by the King to Bakht Khan to arrange for the monthly payment of the King's servants. The General was empowered to fine all those plundering , and to give compensation (tawan) to the plundered victims. He was also instructed to arrange for the civil administration, the police , and revenue departments. An order issued whereby the royal princes were relieved from all further duties connected with the army. A sowar of the 4th Cavalry reported to the General that two European soldiers had pursued him from the English camp: he had killed one of them near the Lahore Gate, but the guard at the gate had taken away his arms and horse. He also reported that 200 carts with provisions had been sent by Patiala to the English, and were then on the road. To intercept these, two regiments of foot, one battery of artillery, and some cavalry were started off at once. The General asked the King's sanction for the repairing of his tents. Twenty thousand troops were assembled on parade near the Jumma Masjid and Lal Dighi. Khuda Baksh Khan, the Naib Kotwal, came to the parade with an order for the troops to stand at attention. They were then marched through the Cashmere Gate and the Selimgarh and Lahore Gates, and halted. The General and his staff went to the Palace, taking with
them two European sergeants. The General reported that they had accompanied his force from Barcilly, and had made themselves very useful. They had also, it was stated, prevented the Europeans at Bareilly from blowing away natives.
They were ordered to go to Selimgarli, Cashmere, and Lahore Gates, and report on the batteries. Report received that the Collector of Gurjawan had marched with a mixed force from jeypu'r, and had severely punished the villagers of three villages near Bithur, who had joined the mutineers. A spy brought in news that the English force numbered 9,000 Europeans. News came that the Lieutenant Governor ef the North West Provinces had written to Luckmiput Seth of Muttra for twenty lakhs of rupees. He had replied that he had gold to that amount, but not silver. Reports received that the troops at Kalpi and Udeypur had mutinied, murdered their officers, and were marching on Delhi.
July 4.- Mirza Kizr Sultan presented himself at the King's audience, and complained that the princes were going about oppressing the people in the city. General Bakht Khan received the title of Farzand.1 (1 Shah Alam first gave this title) The sons of Ahmed Sing, Hassan Ali Khan, and Halmed Ali Khan waited on the King. The Thanadar of Shahwarah sent in a letter saying that twenty sowars were required there to maintain order. Ten men were sent. A letter was written to Moulvie Ahmed Ali, Vakil of the Rajah of Bulubgarh, demanding an explanation of the fact that a cart belonging to Farukh-u-din had been plundered within the Rajah's territory. General Bakht Khan issued a proclamation calling on all the residents to assemble at the Chandni Chowk to hear an order read. The two regiments sent out to intercept the provisions for the English, returned with two carts they had captured. Nine sowars of the Patia'la force were killed. A battery was opened at Alipur. The English made a night attack, with a loss to the Sepoys of eight hundred men. Twenty thousand men assembled in answer to the orders of yesterday, but before the General arrived the crowds dispersed. Four hundred men arrived at Nampur and Naghena to join the King’s forces, and took up their quarters in the Fatehpur Mosque.
July 5.- The King gave audience to Ahsanullah Khan and Ahsan Ali Khan. Imani Begum, wife of Mirza Bulahi, son of Bahadur Shah, late King of Dchli, attended, and represented that the night before Abu Bakr, in a state of intoxication, came to her house with several sowars to seize her, and fired several shots with rifles and pistols, and beat a number of people of the Mohalla. The police arrived, but Abu Bakr attacked the Kotwal with a sword, had him seized and taken away in custody, insulted him, and finally plundered her house. The King was very much displeased, and took away from him all military rank. Orders were issued for his arrest, but in the meantime he escaped. The King ordered all the Princes to keep away from his levees. He issued orders to all the sirdars to note that he had disgraaed the Princes, and they were to be treated as ordinary persons if they were found committing any oppression. It was proclaimed that special constables not acting according to orders would be regarded as offending against the estate. Five companies of Sepoys arrived from Jutapur, and reported that Man Sing had gathered 50,000 men, armed with all sorts of weapons, and had placed them under the orders of General Bakht Khan. Report came that the English had established a battery at Chandrawne. General Bakht Khan sent out a force to intercept provisions : twenty carts fell into their hands. They were brought as far as Zia-u-din Garden, where the English caught up the Sepoys and recovered the carts. Dispatch received from Nasirabad that Colonel Lawrence had reached Abu, and had reassured the inhabitants. One thousand Sepoys were sent to Dhollpur for the safety of the town. They were engaged by the force from Jeypur. The troops of Indore and of the Nawab of Jadra, stationed at Moridpur, deserted without orders. News came that Kishwar Lal, son of the Vakil of the MaharaJah of Hindora, had died of cholera at Bikanir. From Mulitan news came that the English had attempted to disarm the troops; they had refused, and had threatened the Engliish, who had all run away and taken refuge in the fort, and Sepoys had gone off to Lahore.
July 6.- Bahadur Ali Khan, chief of Bahadurgarh, presented a nazzar of eleven rupees, and complained that his ancestral estate had been seized by Bahadur Jang Khan. He asked for justice. Yakub Ali presented a nazzar. The Sepoy officers attended the audience, and reported that a force had been sent out to cover the bridge over the Hindun river, but owing to the want of provisions, and the heavy fall of rain, they had returned. Complaints were made that the General provided his own troops with supplies, but made no arrangements for the rest of the army. The King referred the complainers to the General. The King openly censured Mirza Abdulla and the other Princes for their bad behaviour, and ordered them to disgorge the money they had forcibly taken from the bankers, otherwise their allowances would be stopped. Main-u-din Khan, the former Thanadar of Paharganj, and Hyder Hassan Khan, were summoned, and ordered to give up the property that they had plundered, otherwise they would be severely dealt with. Two petitions from the General were received complaining of the sufferings of the troops owing to the unseasonable weather. Orders issued for the troops to be housed. The General also asked for permission to maintain fifty chuprassies (office messengers). Peitah Sing was ordered to supply the chuprassies. A statement of the strength of the forces in Delhi was ordered to be sent in daily, in order to prepare the pay account. A soldier at Selimgarh had his head taken off by a cannonball. Orders issued to exclude all armed men from the Dewan-I-Khas (Hall of Audience). Youths without turbans were also to be excluded, as being both distasteful and disrespectful to the King. Ahmed Khan, Resaldar of the 4th Cavalry, with several sowars, deserted from the English, bringing with them several thousand rupees; they made their way into the city in the evening. The King sent for the General
Bakht Khan, but owing to pressire of business he could not attend. The King sent a tawiz (a charm worn round the arm) to Ahmed Kuli Khan, with a verbal message to cover it with iron and bind it on his arm, and he would be victorious. Report said that three companies of Europeans and three guns had marched from Agra, and would encamp that evening at the tomb of Safdar Jang Khan, and would march in the morning for Alipur. The King visited the Asud Battery, and inspected the arrangements. Two spies were sent to Jeypur to ascertain if any
force were coming from Bombay. Orders issued for the whole of the troops to parade in the morning. Three spies from the English camp were to day taken in Mahommed Bakht Khan's camp, and were executed there. Two men carrying bottles of brandy in a dirty bag were arrested. An elephant from the English camp was captured and brought into the city. Orders issued to all the police officers to the effect that Mahommed Kuli Khan had been appointed Magistrate over the city with full powers.
July 7.- Amin-u-din Khan, Mirza Zia-u-din Khan, and Mir Hamed Ali KhAn waited on the King. A letter was received from Walidad Khan, Chief of Bulubgarh, saying that he had been attacked by the Collector of Bulandshahr and several hundred European soldiers, but that he had defeated them at Mainpur, twelve miles from Bulubgarh, taking three guns, and had driven them back into the fort. If the King, would send him some assistance, hec would destroy that Collector Sahib altogether. The King ordered a regiment and one gun to be sent to his assistance. The Kotwal was ordered to arrange for the commissariat in communication with the General. Rajah Nahar Sing, of Bulubgarh, sent an urgent letter saying that he had been ordered by the Nimuch force to have in readiness 700 maunds of attah (flour), gram (a pulse for feeding horses), and other articles of food, and asking for instructions if he were to obey this order. Seventy men from one of the cavalry regiments from Lucknow reached the city, and were attached to General Bakht Khan’s force. Several high caste soldiers complained to the King that the General did not supply their wants, and they were discontented , they asked to be put under the command of Mirza Mogul, and to have the money they had brought with them restored to them. The King promised that in future they should be carefully looked after. Orders to this effect were issued, and it was said in writing that it was expedient to make the troops contented. An order was issued to Luchmenarain, Vakil of the Nawab Bahadur Jang Khan, to send two maunds of opium at once into the city; payment was promised. The troops were paraded from the Delhi Gate to the Ajmere Gate the General spoke kindly to the men and comforted them every regiment received a message from the King, that each man who went out to the battlefield, and each man who distinguished himself, would receive a grant of five bighas of land, and receive honorary posts. After the parade the General rode to the Magazine, and examined the park of artillery ; he was satisfied with the inspection. Two petitions reached the King from the General : the first was to the effect that he had consulted with the native officers about sending troops to Bulubgarh, and would verbally report the result ; in the second dispatch it was stated that he would arrange for the distribution of pay to the army. A dispatch received from the Nimuch force saying that they had been victorious at the fight at Hodel over the troops from Jeypur, who had fled. They asked l~:ed for one company of sappers and miners, and six guns, to attack the fort at Agra. The petition was sent on to General Bakht Khan. Orders issued for police reports to be made daily to Ahmed Kuli Khan. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan complained that he had been superseded by Ahmed Kuli Khan. The King consoled him, and changed the order to the effect that the reports should in future be made to Ahsanullah Khan. Reports received that three Marwara bankers and a Musalman had been arrested by some English soldiers from Mehal Bhali Bhathari, and had been taken to the camp ; that the Marwaris had been released, but the Musalman had been shot. It was reported that five lakhs of rupees, sent by Maharajah Narenda Sing, chief of Patiala, had reached the English camp safely.
July 8.- The King entered the Dewan Aam and held a levee. Nine thousand rupees were sent to Mirza Mogul as four days' pay to the troops. A dispatch was received from Khan Bahadur Khan, son of Hafiz Nahamut-ulla Khan, chief of Bareilly, saying that he had made himself master of Barcilly and Shahjahanpur. The King wrote him complimentary letters. A dispatch received from the Peshawur forces intimating that 20,000 men were willing to join the King and would arrive soon . All the cavalry ordered from Mahalab Bagh to to Lal Dighi to the house of Khan Ali Khan. Namchund Dass Korwalla and other shopkeepers arrested Sadut Khan and brought him before the King. He was released after the payment of 6,200 rupees as " nuzzer." Mahommed Azim Khan, son of Shahzada Jehan Aklar, asked for armed assistance to bring his family from Saresar, as the English were marching upon that place. General Bakht Kh~n was instructed to render the assistance asked for. Five butchers were caught taking meat to the English camp on a bed ; they had their throats cut. Great dissatisfaction in the city in consequence of this brutal act. It was reported that forty gun khalassies, with some guns sent by Captain Louis, Commissary of Ordnance at Furidpur, had reached the English camp, but ten of these men deserted and had presented themselves before the King. They reported that there were 400 English at Naini Tall, that the NawAb of Rampur had taken possession of Moradabd and Umrut; and that Nawab Mahommed Khan, chief of Nujibabad, had taken possession of Bijnozur, Nampur, Nagima, and Adanpur, also that Colonel Lawrence had reached Nasirabad from Mount Abu ; that all the Vakils of the Rajahs of Rajputana had gone to meet the Colonel, who had sent for 1,000 men from the Rajah of Pertabgarh, and that the Rajah of Jadra was encamped at Nimuch to protect it ; also that 500 cavalry and foot soldiers had been summoned from Jodhpur. It was reported that twenty Gujars had been beheaded by Raja Tulla Ram for committing dacoities. It was reported that the English were still at Lucknow, entrenched at Muchee Bakwan, and had undermined the ground all round their position, but that the mine on the river side had been injured. The English force was gathered at the Bailey Guard and had armed the Ferozepur Gate. Reports received that a mutiny and disturbance had taken place at Benares and Allahabad; that the English were in good state at Allahabad, but had gone into the fort.
July 9.- According to custom the King entered the Durbar. Several relations of Nawab Mahabub Ali Khan presented a nazzar of four rupees. The butchers of the city complained that five of their companions had been murdered, and that they had received orders not to open their shops. Mirza Mogul was ordered to inquire into the grievances. It was proclaimed by beat of drum that anyone caught cow-killing, would be blown away from a gun, and that anybody who was found objecting to the killing of a goat would be punished.
It was rurnoured that General Bakht Khan had attacked the English with ten thousand men both cavalry and infantry, and that an engagement was taking place at the Chowni Bastion, and that the English position at Tehari Hazari had been taken. General Bakht KhAn charged with cavalry into the English lines, cutting down a great number of officers and men. The artillerymen, it is said, recognized Bakht Khan ; the Jehadis took part in the engagement. Part of the English camp was being plundered when the gunners turned the fieldpieces upon the Sepoys, and shot them down, wounding and killing a great number. The Sepoys then retreated back to the city. In that day's victory, twenty horses, seventy camels, and a great deal of valuable property were seized. 1 (1 It is not clear if the plunder fell into the Sepoys' hands or not, but 1 understand that the horses, camels, and prisoners fell into their hands.) Thirteen cavalry and twelve infantry soldiers were taken as prisoners. Several Europeans who were concealed in the serai of Mahabub Ali Khan were killed, and their heads exhibited as evidence of the victory gained, and laid before the King. The King, on seeing the heads, expressed himself as much pleased, and gave a reward of 100 rupees to those who had killed the Europeans. Two artillerymen of Kuli Khan's battery were shot, for not firing on the gunners, on account of cowardice.
July 10.- The King visited the battery at Selimgarh. Nawab Ahmed WallidAd Khan presented a petition, asking for assistance to help him to realize his revenue. Orders were sent to Mahommed Bakht Khan to despatch troops at once, in order to bring the defaulting tenants to their senses. The Treasurer reported that there were only 175,000 rupees in the treasury. Letters received from Fazand Ali Khan and Nazir Hassan Ali Khan, nobles of Lucknow, saying that they had murdered all the English in that place, and secured the possession of several districts lately in the hands of the English. After reading the letter, the King ordered a letter of congratulation to be addressed to them. It was reported that the English were about to attack the line of entrenchments ; a large force of infantry and cavalry was at once placed under arms, and held in readiness to resist thern. It was subsequently found that the English had only sent out a burial party, to collect the bodies of those who had fallen the day before. General Bakht Khan asked for horses to be sent out to bring in the wounded Sepoys. Orders issued to Hakim Hassan Khan to do so at once. Orders issued to General Bakht Khan to send out a force to Chandrawul, to prevent the English from making a bridge.
July 11.- The King held a levee, and received all the nobles in the city. He then visited Mirza Mogul, and remained an hour with him in confidential conversation. On his return to the Palace, he gave an audience to General Bakht Khan and fifty officers. The General expressed his regret that the King had censured him in a letter which he , lad received. The Kinor denied that he had sent him any Such letter. The General asked that in future all letters from the King should be scaled with his seal. The King assented, as also to another request that wounded Sepoys should receive a pension as well as a grant of land. Bakht Khan represented that he was a native of Sultanpur in Lucknow, and related to the royal family of Oude, and requested the truth of his statements might be inquired into. The King replied that there was no necessity to do so, as he was assuredly of a noble farnily. The General replied that he asked for a formal inquiry, as he should press his claims to some mark of distincti ' on when the English should be expelled from Delhi, Mecrut, and Agra. The General issued orders to Nawab Abdul Rahman to vacate the Kalla Mahall, which he did. He then visited Mirza Mogul, and remained in conversation withhim a long time. Orders issued to the Chief of Rewari to collect all the revenue, and pay it into the Treasury. Orders issued to Hakim Abdul Hak to send ten troopers to Shahdara Police Station to notify that, if anyone should receive the new coin he would be punished. Five troopers arrived from Cawnpore, and. reported to Mirza Mogul that five thousand Sepoys were on their way from Cawnpore to Delhi. Orders issued to the Kotwal to prepare all the available tents for their use, and report the number to the Commander-in-Chief. Mirza Ahmed, Vakil of the Rajah of Nahur Shanker, reported that provisions were ready at Bulubgarh for twenty thousand men of the Nimuch force, who were expected there en route for Delhi. Orders issued by the Commander-in-Chief to the whole force to hold itself in readiness to fight if it became necessary. It was rumoured in the city that several hundred men had killed three Englishmen who had come to the city to take service with the King. A few English soldiers had arrived at Alchdipur in the Bulubgarh district, and had warned the residents to leave the place, as there would be an engagement there in a few days . It was also rumoured that 12,000 English were marching from Bombay to occupy Delhi, Meerut, and Agra. It was reported that the Gujars of Shunkuri, to the number of three thousand, had made friends with and joined the Sepoys, and, after plundering several villages had , one on towards Meerut. The English had sent out a force against them of one company of Europeans and two guns, and had dispersed them, after killing several hundred men. The English lost two serjeants and sixteen Sepoys, who were killed, and the village of Shunkuri had been burned.
July 12.- The King visited the Mahalab Garden. On his return he received Hamid Ali Khan, Hassan Ali Kham, and his son, Saadut Ali Khan, Hossein Mirza Nazir, and Mozuffer-ul- Dowlah. After the presentation of nazzars, Mozuffer-ul- Dowlah presented a petition from Mehdi Ali Khan and Basur Ali Khan, sonss of Aga, a noble of Lucknow. They begged for a letter assuring them of the King's approval of their conduct, as they said they had killed all the English at Cawnpore. They intended going to Lucknow and Benares on their way to Delhi, where they would join the King's forces. The King, ordered the letter to be made over to Hakim Ahsanullah. Several relatives of Shah Shujah-ul-Mulk (deceased), late Governor of Cabul, were presented at the audience by Mirza Mahommed Azim Khan. Ahmed Ali Khan, Faiz Ali Khan, a noble, and Moulvie Ahmed Ali, inhabitant of Bulubgarh, were presented to the King, They declared their loyalty to the King and to the Mogul Dynasty. By a written order they were told to remain with all their retainers and soldiers. Yusuf Ali, a noble of Rampur, came and reported. that he had taken possession of certain districts. He was also told to remain at Delhi with his followers. The city Kotwal came to say that he could only get thirty tents, which he had sent on to General Bakht Khan's camp. The police officer stationed at the Cashmere Gate requested, at the sarne time, that the King would give orders concerning the property of deceased persons which he had in his keeping. General Bakht Khan wrote a petition begging the King to demand four lakhs of rupees for the pay of the troops from the Nawab of Jajjar. The petition was numbered, and orders were issued accordingly to the Nawab. Seven deserters from the English camp came to Mirza Mogul and reported that the English had only 2,000 native troops, and that these were dying owing to insufficient food ; that all their ammunition was exhausted, and that the Rajah of Paitiala had ceased, since several days, to supply food to the commissariat. Three hundred cavalry came in to day from the adjacent districts, and reported themselves to General Bakht Khan. A trooper came in from Cawnpore, and reported that three regimerits of foot and four of cavalry were hastening up to Delhi. Ahmed Khan, Resaldar, 1 ( 1 Of the 9th Bengal Irregular Cavalry. He offered to enter Delhi as a spy, and got an advance of 1,000 rupees and deserted with the money in his pocket.) deserted from the English camp and carne to his house in the city. Mohammed Bakht Khan, hearing this, ordered him to be seized, as he thought he was a spy. He sent him and two sergeants who had come from Bareilly to the Kotwali. Two Europeans found concealed at Paharganj were killed by some troopers. Some camels, laden with grain from the English camp, were captured and taken into the city. To day it was rumoured in the city that the forces of the Rajah of Ulwar had attacked the mutineers from Nimuch, but that his troops had been defeated and two guns captured. The troops from Nasirabad expressed a wish to day to appoint Mirza Jaimul as their commander. Some Jats, who had carried off three cannon belonging to Wallidad Khan, offered to return them, as he was a relative of the King. The army, this day, expressed a wish to be led against the English. A tax of eight annas a maund on sugar was ordered to be levied. Ten sowars of the Rajah of Bulubgarh's force, who were going to join the English, were captured near the torrib of Safdar Jang. They were escorting a buggy, and had several letters. A man stated, at the King's Durbar this morning, that the troops from Jhansi, Muttra, and Nimuch, having joined, had attacked Agra. There had been a severe engagement three miles from the fort, where the English had constructed a battery. The English had been beaten, and had been pursued up to the fort, which they eventually abandoned, as they found they could no longer hold it. On hearing this, Mahommed Bakht Khan was much pleased, and caused the victory to be proclaimed by beat of drum throughout the city, stating that the English were now no longer left at Agra.
July 13.- The King entered the Devan-I-Khas by the Kaspura Gate. All the nobles of Delhi and the chiefs of the native army paid their respects. The victory of Agra formed the general subject of conversation for a long time. A regimental band played music expressive of good news (muzda) before the King in celebration of the victory. The King presented the band with two gold mohurs. The King charged Hakim Abdul Hak Khan with helping to send the buggy and letter and the ten sowars to the English. Hakim Ahsanullah, who was present at the King's levee with the view of helping Hakim Abdul Hak to meet the accusation, remarked that he, Abdul Hak, had thrown off allegiance to the Rajah of Bulubgarh for the last three years, and that he personally knew the Rajah wished to get hold of him in order to punish him. Ahsanullah Khan expressed an opinion that he did not believe Abdul Hak had anything to do with the matter. Mirza Nosha and Mukarram Ali Khan read a kasida (a triumphal poem) in praise of the King's victory over the English. In the evening the King sent three dishes of food to the relatives of the Amir of Cabul. The youngest son of Hassan Ali Klan presented the King with a nazzar of four rupees. The Kotwal sent some boxes found in the house of some Khalassies evidently taken from the Magazine. A letter was written to Naawab Abdul Rahman Khan of Jajjar, to send three lakhs of rupees ; if he could not send five he was ordered to send three, and warned that ifhe disobeyed, a regiment would be quartered upon him to feed. upon him to feed. Thirty one guns were fired from the Selimgarh Bastion in honour of the victory at Agra. The same number of guns was fired from the camp of Mahommed Bakht Khan. The Sepoys plundered bamboos, beams, and wooden posts from Mir Mehdi's shop on the banks of the river; General Bakht Khan proclaimed that anyone caught plundering would be severely punished. Reports received that the English had fought an engagement near Fatchpur, and that they had been defeated by the native troops. Mahommed Bakht Khan distributed 500 rupees among the artillerymen in honour of the victory of Agra. The General waited on the King. A deserter from the English camp reported that supplies for the English were collected at Arab Serai, orders issued to intercept the same. Five hundred ladders were prepared by order of the General, to enable the Sepoys to escape over the wall, in case the English took the city and hemmed in the Sepoys.
July 14.- The King entered the Dewan-I-Khas through the Kaspura Gate. Mirza Hassan Ali Khan, Amin-u-din Khan, Zia- u-din Khan, and other noblemen, attended the levee, and paid their respects. Mirza Hassan Bey, nephew of Moulvie Sadr-u -din Khan, presented a nazzar of five rupees, and Nasraf Kurram Ali Khan a nazzar of two rupees.
July 15.- The King, as usual, gave audience. Mirza Ahmed Ali Khan made his obeisance and reported the state of the city. Barkat Ali, Resaldar of Lucknow, reported that a force of 7,000 men, having killed all the English at the Bailey Guard, were now, with cries for justice, guarding the King's interests. Adjodya Pershad and Thakur Dass, merchants, presented a petition to the purport that they had large stores of wine and spirits which had been taken possession of by the police. Some landholders, bad characters of Delhi complained that 200 cavalry had plundered a wagon and six camels. The King after hearing their complaint, dismissed it, on the ground that it was false. A petition was read from the Nimuch camp, asking for artillery; an order was issued that no artillery could be spared until the English were driven from the Ridge. General Mahommed Bakht Khan represented that the octroi tax upon sugar and salt should be withdrawn, as the taxation would stop the importations into the city, and the army would suffer. The King replied that he thought the levy of octroi duties had been unwise, and they should be withdrawn. The King informed General Mahommed Bakht Khan that the officers of the army had urged him to appoint three Generals of Division ; the General replied that it was necessary to do so. Two companies of the Grenadier Regiment from Umballa came in, and reported that the Rajah of Patiala had shot down a thousand Sepoys who were marching through his territory towards Delhi. Two artillerymen and two sappers deserted from the English camp to-day, and, on the recommendation of Said Hassain Darogah, had been enlisted. Some person who had been watching the English camp with a telescope was arrested. Mirza Mogul presented the King to-day with an excellent telescope. The King's principal wife (Zenut Mehal Begum) visited her Own house to day for some purpose. Mirza Mogul and officers were summoned by the King, and ordered to select three Generals of Division, placing eight regiments of infantry and two of cavalry under each. Under these arrangements the Bareilly Brigade alone remained under General Bakht Khan's command. Arrangements were made for systematically attacking the English camp. Wallidad Khan, the Collector of the Revenue, petitioned that he had been surrounded by enemies, and asked for assistance. After reading the petition, the King ordered it to be made over to Hakim Ahsanullah Khan. It was reported to the King that Mahommed Bakht Khan had sent for Saligram
the banker and had demanded money of him. The banker had replied that all his papers and several thousands of rupees had been plundered, and he was ruined. He was allowed to leave, but a number of soldiers were placed on guard over his house. The same day information was received that the English were constructing a masked battery near the Masjid, and that it had been armed. Information was received that Captain Robinson, Superintendent of Sirsa, was coming in command of a force sent by the Rajah of Bhawalpur, and with some elephants of the Rajah of Bikanir, and that a small force of English had been sent to guard the road from Alipur to Karnaul. Information was received from Jajjar that Nawab Bahaidur Jang, had pledged jewellery to the amount of 16,000 rupees with the Nawab of Jajjar, and further, that on a subsequent occasion, he had again sent jewellery to the value of 13,000 rupees, which the Nawab had fraudulently taken and spent. Bahadur Jang believed this, as he had very good evidence of the Nawab's bad faith, and had accused him of misappropriating the money and of spending it in paying his troops. The following rebel force was reported to be at Jajjar: the 8th and l1th regiments of foot, nine companies of artillerymen. These would arrive on the 24th , at Karnaul. The Rajah of Bulubgarh had taken into his service 200 troopers who had lately been in the employ of the English. Information was received that the tribes near Gujerat had plundered the city and had killed five hundred persons. Nawab Mahommed Khan Walli has taken possession of the treasure from Bijnur.
July 18.- The King entered the Dewan-Aam, or public hall of audience, and received the salutations of the nobles who were present. A letter was written to Madan Sing, a landlord on the banks of the Jumna, to stop murdering and plundering people, which he admitted he had been doing. Haidar Hassan Khan, the Darogah of the artillery lines, brought two men, spies, who stated that the English force was about six thousand men in camp. Orders issued to Hassan Ali Kh~n to write to jajjar at once for three lakhs of rupees to be sent without delay. The rebel forces from Nasirabad and Delhi engaged the English to day. The fighting continued for some time. The English were overpowered, and retreated, leaving their guns on the field of battle. The rebel force from Jhansi, elated with success, attacked the English with great vigour, and killed three camels. The rebels intended to carry off the guns, but they were so firmly fixed in the ground that it was found impossible to move them, especially as they were bound together with heavy chains. A counter attack of one thousand native troops from the English camp against the rebels recovered the ground lost in the morning, and drove the enemy back. About seventy English soldiers concealed themselves in the serai of Mahbub Ali Khan. Several hundred infantry and cavalry of the rebel forces surrounded them. When the English saw they could not be rescued, they came out and made off, but were all killed. The rebels lost two hundred men.
July 19.- Thc King went to Selimgarh. After that he gave an audience. The rebel guard, according to custom, received him with a royal salute. A relative presented him with a nazzar of two rupees. Faiz Ali Khan Fozdar also presented a nazzar of two rupees. Fifty artillerymen lately in the employ of the Rajah of Jeypur presented themselves, and represented that the Rajah had sheltered Europeans, and that the Pundit was always deceiving the Rajah by telling him to side wilthe the English, but that Rawul Sheo Sing and the whole army was anxious to join the rebels, and, as soon as an opportunity occurred, intended to seize the Rajah and bring him into the service of the King. Orders were issued to them to report themselves to General Mahommed Bakht. Twenty troopers joined the rebels to day from Gwalior. They were ordered to report themselves to Mirza Mogul. General Mahommed Bakht reported to the King that the English sergeant and two English soldiers who had been brought to Delhi by the Regiment had been executed in the river bed of the Jumna. The King, as if under divine inspiration, suddenly said: "If I be altogether victorious, after the victory 1 shall go to Agra, and make a pilgrimage to Ajmer, and visit the tomb of Salim Chaste (?), if the Most High be willing and will fulfil all my desires." Orders issued to Ahmed Kuli Khan to attend the audiences daily. The King remained till a late hour discussing the insubordinate conduct of the rebel Sepoys belonging to the Delhi and Meerut Regiments. Ali Ahmed Khan, Vakil, and Faiz Mahommed Khan, of -----, attended the Durbar. They presented two gold molaurs, and represented, on the part of their client, that his family had served the King's ancestors, and that he would immediately join the King with a force of 400 men. He was desired by letter to come at once. It was rumoured that Sir T. Metcalfe, accompanied by artillery and two hundred cavalry, was encamped at Rani Serai, and that two hundred Sikhs were at Alipur. It was also stated that the landholders and grain dealers of Panipat were supplying the English camp with provisions, and that the English were throwing up a battery at Sabzimandi, and further, that two hundred English had gone in the direction of Meerut to Collect material. From Newari came information that Rao Tulla Ram had taken a large force with him to collect revenue, but he had been told by some five thousand men that they had already paid the revenue to Nawab Ahmed Ali, chief of Farukhnagar. They asked for assistance ; the Rao had replied that he had no power to render them assistance, but, if they wished to oppose the Nawab, he would become their chief, Eventually Rao Tulla Ram ran away! Orders issued to General Mahommed Bakht Khan to receive five lakhs of rupees from Muttra; he was to return quickly with the money, and pay the troops. Abdul Hak, the Revenue Collector of Gurjawan, was appointed a police superintendent. Azim Ali Khan, Resaldar, was sent by the King's orders to bring in treasure from Jajjar. The King received a report that the army had gone out to fight, but that the English did not care to engage. It became an artillery duel. One artilleryman was killed and two wounded of the King's forces, and one bullock belonging to a battery was killed.
July 20. Hassan Ali Khan i, Mirhad Ali Khan, the sons of Ahmed Sing, deceased, together with many other nobles, attended the King's Durbar. A number of evil minded landholders of Bagpat attended, and reported that two hundred Europeans, with two guns and five hundred native infantry, had gone to Bagpat with the intention of building a bridge there, and were collecting the Land Revenue. Orders were issued to General Mahommed Bakht Khan to take such steps as he thought best to oppose the English. A number of sappers deserted from the English camp, and their officers attended the Durbar, and reported that the English fighting strength was 6,000 men. If they were attacked by the whole force in Delhi, the King would probably be victorious; but if there were any delay, the English would obtain reinforcements from England, and the King’s forces would not be able to prevail against them.
A number of cavalry troopers sought service; the King replied he had no money to pay for their services. Several unarmed soldiers applied for muskets ; the King replied he had no reserve arms to give them. Muthra Dass, treasurer of Bijnur, sent the King several Sepoys that he had caused to be arrested. He presented the King at the same time with a nazzar of five rupees. Another person also at the same time paid a nazzar of five rupees. Mahommed Khan, son of Nawab Najibabad, presented a petition on the part of the Nawab, asking for a written expression of the King's commendation for having taken from the English Najibabad, Rampur, Bijnur, Dusnaria, Nagina. The petition was ordered to be sent to General Mahommed Bakht Khan for reply, as the King would not commit himself. Ghulam Nabi Khan presented a letter from the Nawab of Jajjar to the purport that, owing to the rebellion, it was impossible to collect revenue; but, as far as lay in his power, to the extent of three lakhs, the King might draw upon him. The Th Thanadar of Negumboda forwarded certain property belonging to deceased Europeans which he had discovered in the house of one Ram Gopal. The King, after inspecting the property, ordered it to be made over to the Begum. The Thanadar of Shahdara sent in five landholders concerned in murders. They were ordered to be kept in confinement. Four deserters from the Sepoys were sent under arrest to the King by General Mahommed Baklht Khan. The King ordered them to be imprisoned. Fifty Sepoys were enlisted, and sent to assist Nawab Wallidad Khan, the Revenue Collector. As they were passing the Calcutta Gate, they were stopped by the guard, who suspected them of deserting under pretence of acting in the service of the Revenue Department . so they deprived them of their muskets. A Resaldar with with several troopers wanted to get away to-day to Gwalior ; they were also stopped by the guards at the Calcutta Gate, and their weapons were taken from them and they, were plundered.
It was rumoured to day that, in the recent fight with the English, a woman dressed like a Sepoy had acted with great bravery; when the rebel Sepoys ran away, she remained opposed to a number of English, and killed one English soldier. Two regiments of infantry and five hundred cavalry, with six guns and ammunition carried on camels, started this day, under orders of General Mahommed Bakht Khan, for Bagpat, to prevent the English from building a bridge. Four regiments of foot and one thousand cavalry, with six guns and ammunition, went off to Alipur to cut off the commissariat supplies. Some troops also marched outside the city for the purpose of attacking the English and distracting their attention, and till midday they carried on a desultory artillery fire. After twelve o'clock the force returned to the city. During the afternoon it was rumoured that the rebels had that day gained a great victory, and that the English had fled towards Alipur. There was great excitement in the city. At once the city rose, and about three thousand horsemen rushed out to share in the victory; they were augmented by some four hundred Mahommedans of high and low birth, and altogether by about six hundred fanatics armed with clubs, swords, spears, and guns. In high spirits they rushed out of the city, intending to plunder the English camp. When they neared the English camp and found that the English were there as usual, they were mightily "sold," and returned very crestfallen to the city. The rebels, however, kept up the firing till the evening, News came from Meerut that the English strongly held that place, and had apprehended Mirza Haider Sheikh, son of Suliman Sheikh, and had hanged him. Information reached General Mahommed Bakht Khan that several regiments were coming. A camel sowar and a messenger came from Lohara to get news, to ascertain if the troops coming were rebels , or drafts from the English camp. Information came that the English cavalry and infantry regiments had reached Gwalior. Ghulam Mahommed Khan, with one hundred cavalry, reached Delhi. News also came that the revenue payers had refused to pay Rao Tulla Ram, of Rewari, any revenue, as they were partisans of Ghulam Mahommed Khan. Rao Tulla Ram had come to Delhi, to obtain authority to enforce payment, and to gain possession of the village.
July 21.- The King visited the fort of Selimgarh, and inspected a newly raised regiment of foot numbered 56, after which he gave a public audience. Mir Said Ali Khan, Mirza Zin-u-din Khan, Mirza Ulla Khan, and other nobles were present. Several landholders of Rajnaliar Sing, chief of Nahab Gari, complained to the King against their chief. After hearing their petition the King made over the petition to Hassanullah Khan, with the observation that the Rajah had shown disloyalty and ingratitude. A camel sowar arrived from GhazibAd and stated that 200 cavalry and three companies of sappers were marching from Benares, and would arrive in the city next morning. Eighteen cavalrymen deserted from the English camp and joined the rebels. A resaldarr of the Jhansi force came to day to the King and complained that he had never received pay nor reward for his services. The King replied that the Jhansi force had appropriated three laklis of rupees, not a penny of which had come into the royal treasury. From what source could he grant pay and rewards ? The resaldAr was ordered to report himself to Mirza Mogul. Mir Said Ali Khan presented the King with a waist sash. The King divided it in half, and sent half to General Mahommed Bakht Khan. Six hundred Jehadis from Tonk arrived and appeared before the King to day ; they reported that two thousand more men were on their way to join the King, The King replied: "I have no money to give you." One company of infantry arrived from Saharunpur, and were ordered to report themselves to Bakht Khan. The King sent General Mahommed Bakht Khan seventeen trays of food from the royal table. Mahommed Khan, chief of Najfabab was ordered by letter to send money and horses for the King's use. It was privately told me that Mirza Mogul intended to review the whole army three or four days from then. Orders were to day issued to General Bakht Khan to attack the English vigorously and simultaneously at Sabzimandi, Alipur, Mubarak Bagh, and at other points, so as to ensure their total discomfiture. He was to tell off the infantry and cavalry into brigades, and was to take immediate steps to do this. Letters were sent to the chief of Jajjar warning him that if he did not send the money demanded from him at once, the King would take other steps to enforce his orders. The revenue collector appointed by the King sent in 3,000 rupees collected by him. One hundred cavalry deserted frorn the English camp and came into Delhi. They were ordered to encamp outside and under the fort. The force sent into Bagpat in accordance with the representation of certain landholders returned and reported that, though they had searched everywhere, they had seen no English ; the landholders had, therefore, been arrested, and had been brought back to Delhi for inquiry as to why they had made false representations. It was rumoured in Delhi that a European force had retaken. Cawnpore and had killed the son of the Peshwa.
July 22.- The King entered the Public Hall of Audience through the Kaspura Gate. General Bakht Khan was present, and complained that certain evil disposed persons were spreading a report that he was in collusion with the English, and that when the King's troops were attacking the English, he (the General) was in the habit of slinking home and of leaving his men to fight without orders. The King replied that he was quite certain of the General's loyalty, and regretted the vexation he had suffered
from such slanderous rumours. He (the King) had no cause of enmity against the English, but he felt he would he exalted by, that army which had rushed to his protection. Mirza Abu Bakr, Mirza Rawas, and Mirza Abdulla were present at the Durbar. General Mahommed Bakht Khan rose from his seat, went behind the King, and whispered something in his ear. The Princes, who were present, took: objection to his doing so, and openly charged him with bad manners in thus violating the customs of good society, by whispering into the King's car in their presence. The General apologised, and, after flattery from him to the Princes, the matter dropped. The General suggested that the King should order the troops to harass the English with daily attacks. He (the General) would undertake to guard the bridge of boats with part of the force under his immediate command, and he would also attack the English in the morning with the remaining portion of his troops. The General then asked for a private audience in the King's apartments. He went, accompanied by two Moulvies, and presented a petition, which the King signed. The General then left for Selimgarh, and examined the batteries and bastions. After this he visited Mirza Mogul, and suggested that a general parade of the army should be ordered to take place a few days from then, at which he should order every man to be sworn by oath that he would continue to fight against the English, giving those who were faint-hearted, leave to return to their homes If any of those who took the oath were found skulking on the field of battle, they should be severely dealt with. A general order to this effect was issued. Information reached the King that cavalry from Benares would arrive in the city. The English artillery fire began to tell upon the city, and a number of the city people were killed. 1 heard also that the English had cut down all the trees in Mir Said Ali Khan's garden, and had constructed a battery there. News also came that a thousand English soldiers,with a great number of camels and several thousand Sikhs, were encamped at Karnaul, and that a long train of ammunition and stores had reached the English camp. It was also reported that the English had blown away three Mahomrnedan fanatics from the guns at Agra, and intended to blow up the whole city. It was said that Lal Juti Pershad had petitioned the Lieutenant Governor at Agra to the effect that all who were concerned in the rebellion were assuredly deserving of punishment, but that many of the Hindus were not seditious, and to punish the innocent with the guilty was very unjust ; and he begged that the blowing away from guns should be stopped. News came that men were being hung every day. It was also reported that Lal Juti Pershad had promised the Lieutenant Governor of the North West Provinces that he would advance as much money as was required. Information was received that a banker was in the habit of visiting the English camp daily with supplies. To day it was known in the city that the English had issued orders to the Revenue Collector of Koti Kasim, to Akbar Ali, Nawab of Patudi, and to the NawAb of Jaijar, that they would be held responsible for the collections of revenue due within their states, and were warned not to pay money to the King. Orders issued to Makand Lal to prepare a burial-place (?) for Nawab Mahbub Ali Khan, deceased. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan presented himself before the King, to lay before him the affairs of the kingdom. One item was the petition of Wallidad Khan to the effect that Abdul Latif Khan was conspiring against him, and trying to oust him from his position. He requested that in the future the King would not hold direct communication with him. Azim. Ali Khan, Resaldar , reported that the Nawab of Jajjar had promised to send three lakhs of rupees on the following Wednesday. A petition was read in open DurbAr from Rao Tulla Ram, to the effect that he was sending his brother with a confidential communication to the King, and begged he might be heard and a favourable answer sent. Orders were sent to Mahommed Akbar, the chief of Patudi, to send in the rrevenue from Sashpur and other villages. A hundred cavalry troopers from Gwalior reported themselves. In the cours of the afternoon Mirza Mogul and other princes reviewed the whole force outside the city walls, and the orders of General Mahommed Bakht Khan were read. The unanimous answer of the army was, that they would continue to fight the English to the bitter end. News came that the Rajah of Sashpur was who had been on bad terms with the Rani, had become reconciled to her.
July 23.- The King went to Selimgarh Fort and gave ordersthat the cavalry regiment, 600 strong, coming from Benares, was to be met with all proper ceremony, and paraded before him. When this was done the regiment was ordered to encamp outside the Ajmcre Gate. The e King then returned to the Palace and entered the private apartments. Mir Said Ali Khan and Hassan Ali Khan attended the King. The landholders of Klanore brought an elephant belonging to the English which had fallen into their hands ; the King, after inspecting the animal, ordered it to be taken to the elephant stables. The Agent for Rao Tulla Ram, noble of Rewari, presented a nazzar of one gold mohur on his master's behalf, and five rupees on his own, and transacted some business connected with the estate of Bhora. Matters connected with Nawab Said Ali Khan, of Farukhnaggar, were also explained to His Majesty. Gopal Sing and Dokul Sing presented five rupee nazzars, and were ordered to report themselves to General Mahommed Bakht Khan. Orders were issued to the Revenue Collector of Kot Kasim to bring all his accounts for the King's personal inspection. A dispatch was received from the force marching, from Nimuch that they had reached Jaloul, and would shortly, arrive to drive the English from the Ridge, and would retake it.
July 24.- Mir Said Ali Khan and some of the Sirdars (Chiefs) held a consultation regarding the insubordination of the soldiers. The Chief Police Officer of the city personally reported that he had brought 2,800 Ibs. of sweetmeats for the delectation of the soldiers ; the King inspected the same. Mirza Abu Bakr represented to the King that if he would authorize him, he would take 2,000 men and go out to collect the revenue of the villages in the direction of Gurgan, His Majesty replied he would take time to consider. A deputation of officers represented that they were in great want of pay. Mirza Akbar SultAn summoned all the wealthy bankers of the city, and extorted a sum of 8,000 rupees from them. In this matter the principal movers were the Begurn Zenut Mahal, Ahsanullah KhAn, her minister, and Mahmud Lal. Mirza Ali Baksh sought an interview with the King, and privately advised him to open negotiations with the English. The King replied he was powerless and unable to do so. He was warned that if he failed to do so it would be injurious to His Majesty there the matter was dropped. Some 200 fanatics from Nujibabad arrived and halted outside the city. Mirza Mogul waited on the King and with an escort of 100 cavalry visited the city and distributed wo rupees among the fakirs. The King sat at night in the Council Chamber and conversed with Hakim Ahsanullah Khan until a late hour. The King sent cooked food and a piece of fine linen to his instructor in religion, Moulvie Hassan Asgorie.
July 25.- His Majesty sat in the Public Hall of Audience and received the nobles. Ghulam Mahommed Khan, the Revenue Collector of Kot Kasim, was ordered to pay in the balance due Of 3,000 rupees ; the Collector stated his inability to do so. Gungaram Harkara (messenger), Hafiz Abdul. Hakim, and Jewan Lal, were directed to take several hundred cavalry and realize the money from the landholders. Samnud Khan, Resaldar, presented himself before the King, offered a nazzar of one rupee, and reported the affairs of his part of the country. A deputation from the Nimuch camp waited on the King and complained that there was no room for them in the Arab Serai where they were located, and asked for better quarters ; their petition was ordered to be sent to General Mahommed Bakht Khan. Azim Ali, Resaldar, petitioned the King that the demand for money from his master, the Rajah of Jajjar, might be withdrawn, but said he would send in a few thousand rupees, which was all he had ; some of this would be sent in the course of a few days, and the rest a little later. His Majesty, after hearing the petition, directed Hakim Ahsanullah Khan to prepare a reply. One hundred and fifty cavalry of the Gwalior contingent, who had joined the Nimuch rebels, presented themselves at the Palace to ask for quarters to be assigned to them, but in the meantimc the King entered the private apartments. Information was received that a man armed with a written authority frorn the English to raise money had been for some days in the house of Alap Pershad, Agent of the former Nawab of Jajjar, and was on his way to Muttra, travelling in a bullock cart. When he reached the Delhi Gates, the guards searched the man and found the paper in question; they then confiscated his cart and severely beat the man. After this some 400 of the soldiers went to Alap Pershad's house and charged him with concealing Europeans, and on this pretence they searched and plundered his house, and those of seven other persons, and carried off property to the value of 50,000 rupees. As soon as General Mahommed Bakht Khan heard of this he sent off several hundred men to stop the outrage, but these soldiers would not interfere with the plunderers. Gordohon Dass, resident of Luttu, was leaving the city in a cart, and had with him for his own protection some cartridges, gunpowder, and bullets; the guard at the Delhi Gate searched his cart, and arrested him on the ground that he was taking ammunition to the English. On this pretext several hundred Sepoys went to this man's house and extorted 2,000 rupees from him by intimidation; one soldier was wounded. Information was received that four regiments of native infantry, 1,700 cavalry, with several lakhs of rupees, several fieldpieces, and forty elephants, under the command of Heera Sing, Ghosh Mahommed Khan, and Sadhari Lal, were in the Nimuch camp, and in the morning would encamp below the breastworks. During the night several residents of the city and Palace were killed by the fire from the English camp. Ghulam Mahommed Khan visited General Mahommed Baklit Khan.
July 26.- Mirza Zin-u-din Khan and Mirza Amin-u-din Khan were present at the audience this morning. The rent-collectors of the Shah of Lucknow gave in a petition to His Majesty to the purport that they were intent on realizing the revenue, which they would send to the royal treasury as soon as it was realized. Amanut Ali, police officer, lately in the employ of the English, presented himself at the Durbar, and, after offering a nazzar, represented, on behalf of Nawaib Hassan Ali Khan, that he had been engaged in raising ten thousand men for the King's army, l
and on this account had not been able to come to Delhi. A letter was received from one of the chiefs of Lahore, in which it was written that Sir John Lawrence had issued a proclamation in the Punjab, which declared that the King of Delhi had offered large rewards to anyone who would kill Sikhs, and bring in their heads. Several Jehadis from Tonk were introduced to the King by Samnud Khan : each presented the King with a nazzar of two rupees. Rao Tulla Ram and Ram Sing, noble, uncle of the chief of Rewari, were presented at the DurbAr, and represented several matters. Some cavalry soldiers stated that they had carried off a number of chargers from the English camp. Mirza Mogul inspected a cavalry regiment, 800 strong, in the Nimuch camp. The officers presented him with gold mohurs, a horse, and an elephant with trappings, as nazzars, but Mirza Mogul declined their presents. In accordance with the petition of General Mahommed Bakht Khan, he was invested with the rank and title of Governor. The King informed the General that he was much pleased with his conduct. In return, the General expressed his gratitude and offered a nazzar of ten gold mohurs, and promised that Joan Bakht should be recognized as the Heir Apparent. Thakur Gopal Sing, son of Dhobul Sing, sought an interview, in order to represent certain matters. Mirza Abu Bakr, Mirza Abdulla, and Mirza Kwass entered the audience chamber, and informed the King that 252 Ibs. of oil were consumed every night in the English camp, and that all this quantity went from the city. A trooper committed suicide to day, on the Jumma Masjid, by shooting himself. The King received information that when the Nimuch troops were approaching Bulubgarh, Dewan Sunpuk Rao went ten miles forward to meet them, and, with much suavity and politeness (with a touch of dissimulation), accompanied the force to Futiabad, when he was allowed to leave. The King received private information that it was rumoured at Meerut that the English intended to punish the rebels on the 1st of August.
July 27.- Awala Pershad and Munshi Ratnal attended the audience, and complained to His Majesty that the Sepoys had plundered property to the value of £10,000 from their houses, on the pretence that they had concealed Europeans. The King ordered the complaint to be inquired into by Mirza Mogul, and arrangements to be made to recover the property taken away by the soldiers. An urgent dispatch was received from the police officer of Bakhtghari, that a body Of 2,000 men were assembling, with the intention of plundering the city. Orders were issued to General Mahommed Bakht Khan to send a force to scatter these insurgents. Orders were issued to Moulvie Sirdar-u-din Khan to preside over the criminal courts, but the Moulvie declined to do so, saying he could not undertake the office as long as the English remained unconquered. To day two Sikhs came on behalf of the chiefs of Lahore to say that 200,000 cartridges had been safely delivered to the troops in the Nimuch camp. Orders were issued that these were not to be wasted, as the supply in the Magazine was running short. A native deserter came in to day from the English camp. General Mahommed Bakht KhAn held a parade to day, and warned the soldiers not to harass and plunder the people in the city. Those who transgressed this order would not be allowed to participate in the coming victory. Two native artillerymen, deserters from the English camp, came in to-day. They stated that there were very few fighting men left in the camp, but that the English were very strong in artillery and siege trains. Orders were issued to the officers of the Nimuch force to present themselves before the King at once. They sent back a message that they would be present on the morrow. Important news to day that 20,000 Europeans had landed from ships, that Cawnpore, Benares, Fatehgarh, Allahabad, etc., had been reoccupied by the English, that there had been some insubordination in the army of the Rajah of Patiala, and that several hundred mules laden with ammunition and stores had been escorted by the Rajah’ss troops and safely delivered in the English carnp.
It was reported to the King that the English had constructed an armed battery of eighteen guns at Hirsul, another at Barampari and Alipur, also in the garden of Nawab Said Ali Khan; and that they were digging a deep ditch a mile in length near the garden of Mehaldar Khan , to stop any advance, and to prevent any attack on their camp. The English had also sent 800 cavalry, escorting some guns, to prevent the Sepoys making a bridge over the canal, and they were said to be inspecting the country with the view of selecting a suitable battlefield where they might destroy the rebels.
July 28.- The King inspected the Fort of Selimgarh, and he proceeded afterwards to the Hall of Public Audience. Mir Said Ali Khan and Hakim Abdul Hak, the sons of Rajah Ahmed Sing, deceased, also Hassan Ali Khatn and other nobles, were present. There was a great gathering of officers. The General Mahommed Baklit, Sirdhari Lal, Ghosh Mahommed, and Heera Sing were present. The latter related the fight with the English at Agra. The recent report of the English reinforcements was discussed. Kamund Lal petitioned that he might be allowed to take the body of his deceased mother through the Calcutta Gate of the city. The petition was granted. Rao Tulla Ram, of Rewari, wrote asking that he might obtain a grant of the village of Bhora. The petition was made over to Ahsanullah Khan for report. The King ordered letters to be written to the General and officers of the army that no cows were to be killed within the city during the festival of the Eid, and if any Mahommedan should do so he would be blown away from a gun; and whoever, on the part of a MusalmAn, helped to kill a cow, would also be killed. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan demurred to such an order, and said he would consult the Moulvies. The King, on hearing this, became very angry, closed the audience, and retired to the private apartments. Some troopers brought in six ponies they had captured. Fifty cavalry came in from Cawnpore, and reported that the English had retaken the place. They brought with them an elephant which they presented to the King ; they also reported that the Nana Sahib Peshwa had run away. The officers of the Nimuch force presented the King with twenty-six elephants ; they were ordered to be sent to General Mahommed Bakht Khan. It was reported that the English had captured several grass cutters belonging to the Bareilly camp, and had questioned them as to the number of Sepoys, and had chaffed them as to why General Mahommed Bakht Khan did not come out to fight; and after cutting off their ears and noses had let them go. According, to the King's orders Baklut Khan had it proclaimed that cow killing in the city was forbidden. Mirza Mogul convened a council of war at his house ; he also deputed a force of 200 cavalry for the protection of his mother. He then went to the Ajmere Gate. The King ordered that GhulAm Nubee Khan, representative of the Nawb of Jajjar, should be excluded from the Durbar, as his master had not sent the money demanded from him. Ghulam Mahomined Khan, noble of Farukhnagar, presented a certificate for the King's signature appointing him TehsildAr of Bhora. It was reported that Mahommed Bakht Khan had issued orders for the arrest of Rai Ram Sing, uncle of Tulla Ram of Rewari, on the ground of a series of complaints prepared by a number of the inhabitants of Rexari against him, but, being warned, Ram Sing left the city before he was caught. It was reported that Bombay troops had arrived at Rewari.
July 29.- A DurbAr was held to day in the city by Mirzas Amin-u-din Khan and Zia-u-din Khan, and other of the principal men in the city. General Bakht Khan came as a representative of the King. Kadir Baksh, Subahdar of the Sappers, addressed the meeting and charged Bakht Khan with neglecting to attack the English. "Many days had passed and the General had not led his forces to fight; the result was that the English were collecting every requirement for successfully attacking the city." The General lost his temper, but was restrained by the King, who remarked that the Subahdar had spoken truly. Nothing definite was settled. The officers of the Nimuch force represented that they were short of tents ; they were referred to the General. A landholder appeared and presented a nazzar of a rupee. Salaries of the King's officers were distributed to day to the amount of 120,000 rupees. His Majesty sent four trays of meats from his table to General Mahommed Bakht Khan. News reached the King that several thousand Sepoys from Lahore were investing Patiala. Several Sikhs, retainers of the Rajag Narunder Sing, deserted from the English camp and appeared at the Durbar, and they reported that the English were badly off for artillery horses, but had plenty of guns. Five hundred soldiers, foot and horse, from Fatchpur, arrived, and were ordered to report themselves to General Bakhtt Khan. The General this day issued orders to Hassan Ali Khan to go and realize three lakhs of rupees from the Rajah of Jajjar, under threat that he would send a force to compel the Rajah to pay. News came to the Palace that troops from Bombay had reached Madhu Gani, and were pushing on for Delhi. Ramji Mall and Jitmall, bankers, were ordered to pay five lakhs to the royal treasury, and threatened if they did not comply. A regiment from Nasirabad joined the Nimuch force.
July 30.- The King went this day to see a fakir in the Fahatab Garden, and talked to him for some time regarding the fighting. After seeing him, His Majesty consulted Mir Said Ali Khan and Hakim Abdul Hak Khan; after that he entered the private apartments. An unpleasant incident occurred. The son of Nawab Mahommed Mir Khan, deceased, was seated during the audience. After the King had left, Mir Said Ali Khan said to him: "It is very improper that you should remain seated whilst all the other nobles stand in the presence of the King , and you, too, must in future stand, and not take a seat, or it will not go well with you." Certain fanatics (Jehadis) represented to the King that they had no food, and were starving. His Majesty's reply was that the treasury was empty. Wallidad Khan, Nawab of Bulubgarh, sent a petition to say he had collected 200 horses and several fieldpieces that had fallen into his hands, but he wanted infantry to convoy them. The King directed General Bakht Khan to send a regiment of foot, four hundred cavalry, and two field guns, to assist the Nawab. The General, however, wrote to the Nawab that he must first send him a present of one thousand rupees and and then he would despatch the force to his assistance Gobind, the Nazir, complained to the King that General Bakht Khan had ordered him to give up his house for the use of the soldiers ; the King issued instructions to the General not to harass the petitioner. A messenger from Jeypur presented himself, and after offering a riazzar of one rupee, communicated to His Majesty that the soldiers of the Jeypur army were dissatisfied with their Rajah, because he had concealed eleven Europeans within the private (female) apartments of the Palace, and that they intended, when the Rajah next appeared in public, to arrest him and take him prisoner to Delhi to appear before the King. The Rajah, it was said, had enlisted 2,000 Rajputs for his protection, and had mounted cannon around his Palace. The soldiers in their petition asked for a royal letter approving their conduct. The King dictated a written reply, that whoever was loyal to the King should in due time be rewarded. Letter received from the Rajah Nakir Sing, of Bulubgarh, through General Bakht Khan, praying that whatever fault he might have committed, he might
be pardoned. Two cavalry deserters came in from the English camp, and stated that they had been sent from Meerut to bring in commissariat stores from Saharanpur, that they had been attacked on the way by Gujars (robbers) and the stores all plundered, and that the petitioners now wished to join the King's forces. Three shawls and twenty-one rupees were sent to Dewan Makand LAl on account of the death of his master, as a token of sympathy. At four o'clock in the afternoon Ramji Mall, banker, and Puttia Mall, merchant, waited on the King at the Durbar, and after making their obeisance Ramji Mall placed his turban at the King's feet, and pleaded that he had not a penny in the world left. His banking firm was at Lucknow, and his house had been plundered ; he had nothing to give the King. His Majesty replied, " I ask you for money as a loan ; 1 do not want to take it as a tax. See, my friend Jeoti Persha had advanced 30,000 rupees to the English ; on what grounds do you demur to lend me money?" The King told Puttia Mall that he must advance 50,000 rupees. Orders were issued that the Nimuch force was to march in the morning in the direction of Alipur. Several citizens were killed to day by the English fire, which reached the city. There was a quarrel between officers of the Bareilly and Nimuch forces ; General Bakht Khan went to the Nimuch camp and brought about a reconciliation.
July 31.- Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan, Chief of Farukhnagar, sent a petition reminding the King of his connection with the Royal Family, and of the fact that he held a jaghir of two crores of rupees yearly, given to his ancestors by the Moguls ; he complained that he was about to be attacked by Rao Tulla Ram, of Rewri. At the same time a letter was read, sent by Rao Tulla Ram to Ghulam Mahommed Khan, with the words: "Are you intoxicated that you think the English are going away from Hindustan ? They will most assuredly return and will destroy you." It was also stated in this letter that Rao Tulla Ram had sent some money to Rewari, which some landholders had seized ; also that he had grossly insulted the Begum, and had not up to the present time appeared before the King. His Majesty desired that letters should be written to the Chief of Farukhnagar to send money to the royal treasury ; also to Rao Tulla Ram. The children of Rajah Mahid Sing petitioned that seven villages given to their father by the King had been taken by the English, and prayed that the King would order them to be restored. A chief of the fanatics (Jehadis) arrived from Tonk, and presented a nazzar of five rupees. Juhir Lal, the keeper of the royal jewels, produced seven changes of raiment to be worn during the Eed festival. Mir Feraz Ali represented that the Jehadis were dying of hunger. The King , replied he had no money to feed them. Feraz asked that they might be fed by the city people under the King's orders; the King highly approved of this proposal. A number of the officers of the Nimuch force appeared at the Durbar and reported that they had marched to Alipur at two o'clock in the night, and reached Bisari Bridge about eleven o'clock, where they came under artillery fire. They quickly destroyed the entrenchment thrown up by the English ; they then mended the bridge, and returned, and had an engagement with the plunderers (English) in which about two hundred men on both sides had fallen. The King cried, " Bravo! well done !" and gave the officers great praise. It was also said that when the Nimuch force was crossing the bridge the English sent out reinforcements, but General Bakht Khan diverted and engaged their attention, and retreated on Alipur. The Revenue Collector appointed by the King at Ghaziabad sent in a petition to say that a collector on the part of the English with 100 soldiers had come there ; but he had enlisted himself for the purpose of collecting the revenue, and at a convenient moment, with the assistance of fifty troopers, he had arrested eighteen revenue burkandazes (collecting staff) and seized five horses. The following items of news were circulated : that the English had hanged sixtyfour men at Meerut on the 29th; that the Nana Sahib had killed 1,500 English soldiers who had reached Cawnpore, and had retaken possession of Cawnpore. Several residents of the city were arrested on the false pretence of concealing English. It was also stated that the Nimuch force, with two guns and 400 men, had gone towards the Ridge and Alipur, but when they found the guns could not travel, they had returned. A Moulvie said to the King to day that, if he would permit him to recite a verse of the Koran over the entrails of a goat, then the guns of the English would become useless. Certain zemindars of Buri Basari petitioned the King that the English were demanding revenue from them. If the King would only give the order they would not pay a single pice, but would slaughter the English.
August 1.- The King held a Durbar. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan attended, also the other nobles. The King and all his courtiers went to public worship and prayer, and distributed six suits of clothing and three strings of jewels, and scimitars, to the Moulvies at the Jumma Masjid, Chota Masjid, and at the Eedgah, and four dresses of honour and three strings of jewels to Mirza Ahmed Sultan and Mirza Jehandad Khan, at the durbars held at the Eedgah and Jumma Masjid, and at the former place the King sacrificed a sheep. Mirza Janwan Bakht and Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, also Rajah Ajit Sing, noble, of Patiala, Nazir Hassan, Mirza Mozuffer-ullah, Captain Dilwar Ali KhAn, and other officers, presented nazzars in accordance with their rank, in value 8 gold mohurs and 120 rupees. News came to day that the Nimuch force had had a fight with the English at Basi. Many were killed and wounded, and, on account of the rain, the whole force had suffered great iriconvenience. His Majesty then entered his private apartments. The Begums presented nazzars. I heard privately that in the morning the English, with a battery of six guns, had attacked the Sepoys, and had beaten them back. Soldiers sent by the King's officials came with an order demanding 50,000 rupees from Munshi Sultan Sing, and 25,000 from me, and smaller sums from others. They were very importunate, and an altercation ensued. At last Lalla Sant Lal persuaded them to go away. He also interceded for us with Hyder Hussein Khan, who commanded the artillery. We also entreated Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Lalla Bhola Nath, and others. The Hakim said the matter rested with General Bakht Khan, the Commander in Chief; he himself was unable to interfere ; we must pay something to obtain release. Lalla Sham Lal, the Vakil for the Heir Apparent, did his best for us. Mirza llahi Baksh made them believe we had no money, and it was useless to demand it.
August 2.- The Hall of Public Audience was filled this day with the brightness of the King's presence. Mirza Amin-u-din Khan, Saadut Ali Khan, Vakil, FazI Hassan Khan, lbrahim Ali Khan, Vakil Akbar Ali Khan, were present; also General Samund Khan, Resaldar, Ghulam Nabi Khan, Vakil Hassan Ali Kham, and Moulvie Sadr-u-din Khan. The value of the nazzars presented to day was 126 rupees and 9 gold mohurs. The conversation turned for a long time on the fighting. Then the King recited some verse which he had composed, and which he sent to General Bakht Khan ---
"May all the enemies of the Faith be killed to day ;
The Firinghis be destroyed, root and branch !
Celebrate the festival of the Eed Kurban by great slaughter ;
Put our enemies to the edge of the sword - spare not !"
A petition was received from Rao Tulla Ram, with a nazzar of five gold moliurs. General Bakht Khan attended, and reported that, in consequence of the heavy rains, the troops that had gone in the direction of Basi had found the whole country flooded, and had returned. The King, on hearing this, became very angry and said: "You will never capture the Ridge." The same day the King summoned all his officers to the Hall of Public Audience in the everiing, and addressed them "All the treasure that you brought me, you have expended; the Royal Treasury is empty and without a 'pice.' I hear that day by day the soldiers are leaving for their homes. 1 have no hopes of becoming victorious. My desire is, that you all leave the city and go to some other central point. If you do not, I will take such steps as seem to me most advisable." In answer to this address the officers tried to cheer His Majesty, and exclaimed: "By the help of God we will take the Ridge yet!" At that moment a round shot from the English entered the Selimgarh Fort and killed a Sepoy. A lengthy order was issued to me to the purport that 1 must present myself with 50,000 rupees. I recited the following verses in my mind:
"God rescue me from this trouble ;
No one but He knows what is passing in my mind."
Ahmed Mirza incited the princes against me, asking them to put a guard over my house day and night. Soldiers, horse and foot, were sent by Hyder Hossein Khano trouble and importune me. At last Sant Lal took them to the Palace and executed a reconnaisance.
August 3.- Ghosh Mahommed Khan, an official of the Nimuch force, waited on the King. He refused to see him, saying he had no leisure. The officers of the Criminal Administration presented nazzars to Nawab Kuli Khan, Vakil. Mahommed Akbar Ali Khan of Patudi presented a gold mohur on behalf of his mistress the Begum. All the officers of the Army, in accordance with the orders of Mirza Mogul Beg, attended the Durbar. The subject of conversation was, for a short time, the last engagement. Ten troopers arrived from Fatehgarh and joined the rebels. A petition was received from the troops at Gwalior to the effect that 2,000 men were ready to march to Delhi if the King would give the order. He said in reply: "The Royal Treasury is empty." Some Jehadis from Nasirabad sent a petition saying 6,000 men there were of one mind, but that the English had retaken the city. The King dictated the reply: "Say there are 60,000 men in Delhi, and they have not yet driven the English away from the Ridge; what can your 6,000 do?" General Bakht Khan came to the Burbar and complained that the soldiers no longer obeyed his orders. The King replied: "Tell them, then, to leave the city." A courier presented a scimitar to the King, and said : "This scimitar belonged to the Prophet." A crier went about the city proclaiming that the Akund of Swat was marching to Delhi with 1400 jehads to serve the King. No one prevented him from doing so. Mirza Mogul went out for a ride with an escort of 200 cavalry as far as Jingpur. This afternoon, while one hour of day remained, there was an earthquake. It was told me privately that Akbar Khan, the Chief of Patudi, was in the city in disguise. Mirza Mogul, through the persuasions of Lalla Sant Lal, came to me. I told him all about myself that I really had no money. All my salary was went to pay my ordinary expenses. I had worked all my life honestly, and had amassed no money. 1 had no money now unless my salary was paid. The King had it in his power to do what he liked. The Mirza charged me with sending news to the English, with causing Brahmins to pray for the restoration of the English and for the defeat of the King, and with calling the Sepoys "faithless traitors." He said: "All I can do for you is to reduce the amount you have to pay."
August 4.- Whilst the King was in the private apartments a deputation of officers came with the complaint that Hakim Ahsanullah Khan was in communication with the English, and that it was he who had caused the proclamation to be made that 1,400 Jehads from Swat had reached the halting place, and would arrive in the city to day. The officers stated that from inquiries they had ascertained that the men were Pathans enlisted by, the English, who, to make themselves masters of the city, were coming to fight the Purbeahs and kill them. The King replied to the officers that he had no information of any such proclamation, and was certain that Hakim Ahsan was not concerned in any such treachery. On the contrary, the King knew the Akund had deputed a trust worthy agent to act as his deputy, and had placed his own sword in his hands with an order to destroy the English in the name of God and the Prophet. So convinced were the officers of the Hakim's treachery, that they went in a body to his house to kill him, but Hakim Ahsan was not at home, having been warned. The King sent for the officers and Mirza Mogul, and after flattering the former told them that he was satisfied that the man who had made the proclamation was an agent of the English; he also told them that he had appointed Mirza Mogul and General Bakht Khan to command them; they might select which of the two they preferred. He would confirm their choice, but it was intoleable that the residents in the city should be harassed and threatened by the soldiers, who had come to the city with the avowed object of destroying the English and not their own countrymen. These soldiers are always boasting that they are going out of the safety afforded by the fortifications to destroy the English, and yet are always returning to the city. "It is quite clear to me," said His Majesty, "that the English will ultimatelv recapture this city, and will kill me." The officers were impressed with the King's words ; they besought him to be brave of heart, and they invited him to put his hand on their heads, for without doubt they would be victorious. There were about 150 officers present, and as they passed before him he placed his hand on the head of each man. Then His Majesty uttered a prayer and said, " Go with haste and be victorious on the Ridge." The King rose, and after they had gone he entered the fort of Selimgarh, and ordered them to fire shells from the batteries then he returned to his own private apartments. from thence he sent a written order to Mirza Mogul to be watchful that no harm happened to Hakim Ahsanullah Khan. The King ordered pay to be disbursed to the soldiers. He further requested that every officer of any position in the Army should be summoned to appear before himi. General Bakht Khan, in accordance with this command, came to the Durbar, and explained that the officers had gone out with an escort of 400 cavalry and the local zemindars to make themselves acquainted with the various positions they were to occupy, and he added: " Now I shall be victorious; if God wills, 1 shall prosper. My plan is to attack the English at Alipur."
A message came to the King from Gwalior that the whole army was willing to place itself under his command, " Reply" said the King impatiently, "as I said before ; there is no money for their support. We have here 60,000 men in the city, but they have not been able to win a clod of dirt from the English." Hassan Ali, Resaldar, presented a petition to the purport that if the King would authorize him he would assess every landholder from Delhi to Hardwar, and by this means raise at least five lakhs of rupees. English shot and shell killed and wounded many citizens to day. The Sepoys were paraded before the Delhi and Ajmere Gates. These troops were divided into three brigades under Mirza Mogul, Ghosh Mahommed Khan, and General Bakht Khan. The men were warned to be on the alert against strange men reported to be the Jehadis ; the guards were to be careful they did not enter the city: they were said to be encamped at Ram Serai, and to be really native levies raised by the E nglish, and riot friendly Jehadis. The Generals exhorted the men to be of one mind, and if they were so the attack on the English could not fail to be successful ; they would be victorious, and the English would be slaughtered. I communicated with Nawab Hossein Ali Khan Bahadur, through Lalla Gopie Nath, to use his influence with Ahmed Mirza to desist from troubling me. Hyder Hossein Khan, Commandant of Artillery, again sent me an order for payment, brought by a mounted orderly. Sant Lal replied. Budri Messur came to me and said that Sir John Metcalfe, with some horsemen, had been in Tilwara in pursuit of rebels, and was much grieved to hear of the sad condition of myself and other loyal natives in the city. He wished me to keep up my heart, as the English would soon retake Delhi. The delight this information produced in my heart was as new life which a seasonable shower gives to a garden. As the soldiers sent to extort money used to create much disturbance at my house, Lalla Jiwunchund and other relations and friends deserted me, thinking it most prudent to keep away from me. I had a visit from Hakim Ghulam Naksh Band Khan, who cheered me by saying he would use his good offices in my behalf with Hakim Ahsanullah Khan.
Anjust 5 His Majesty sat this day in the Public Hall of Audience. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan was present with other nobles. A letter of congratulation was read from Lucknow, bearing the signatures of Kudrat Ali Khan, Rajah Hirat Sing, Rajah Khan Singg, and others, saying: "We have killed all the English here, and 1,600 have been slaughtered at Cawnpore. We have now seated the son of our beloved Mistress the Begum on the Throne. We are also in want of skhu and ramrods, which please send." The King ordered the letter to be made over to General Bakht Khan. A letter was received from Fatehgarh from Syud Ali, saying : "We have killed all the English here, and we have a force of 8,000 men willing to act under my orders, and I am awaiting the King's orders." Certain Sikhs presented a petition complaining that they were in the habit of attacking the English entrenchments, but had to return, as the Purbeahs would give them no assistance and would not co-operate ; they prayed the King to form a regiment of Sikhs from amongst the regiments of Delhi, and to entrust them with two field guns, that they might attack the English with some chance of success. They were encouraged, and told not to despair of victory. The sapper and miner regiments also complained that they laboured at erecting batteries in the open, at much loss of life, to protect the King's soldiers when fighting, but that these abandoned them at night, and the batteries were destroyed night after night by the English. The King called General Bakht Khan's attention to this complaint. The jehadis complained that they were the only people who went out to fight the English in earnest; the others were like people sitting down and making no exertions. They were told to carry their complaint to Mirza Mogul. Orders sent to Rajah Devi Sing, Rajah Saligram, and Rai Gunjaram by FazI Beg jointly to pay into the Treasury 50,000 rupees. General Bakht Khan informed the King that the troops would attack the English to morrow. Rajah Bholam Nath waited on the King and presented him, in accordance with the Eastern custom, with ornaments to be attached to His Majesty's wrist at the time of the full moon in Sawun. Two hundred cavalry were sent to Jajjar ' to bring in three lakhs of rupees, and fifty men were sent to Kutub and fifty to Kot Kasim to bring in revenue collectors. It was stated that as English were running short of shot and powder they were cutting out stone balls from the rocks. Certain Cashmeries, servants of Maharajah Golab Sing, were arrested by some cavalry and taken to General Bakht Khan ; they stated that Captain Ropeston (sic) had enlisted 1,000 horse and foot at Ghoharia, and was collecting revenue. A Frenchman came to the King, and offered to make grapeshot. The King visited the Bastion Batteries, and ordered a continuous artillery fire to be kept up upon the English camp and upon those batteries which were sending balls into the city.
Anjust 6.- A letter was written to clay to the Maharajah of Patiala to send the King six lakhs of rupees. It was entrusted to Samund Khan to send the letter under an escort of ywo troopers. Mahommed Azim, son of Prince Akbar, was ordered to Hissar to collect revenue. Petition received from Bahadur Ali Khan that he was halting on the other side. of the Jumna with a force of 1,000 men awaiting orders. He was directed to cross over early the next morning ,and encamp outside the Ajmere Gate. The Punjabis living on Saadut Ali Khan's Canal promised to pay to the King 41,000 rupees. It was reported that Sirdarhi Lal, Commander of the Nimuch force, and Mahommed Bakht Khan, commanding the Bareilly Sepoys, had joined their forces together, and had attacked the English at Alipur, at the Ridge, and at the Mutali Bridge; and that the English had beaten back the troops that had gone out at the Cashmere Gate, and had beaten them as far back as the Residency; they were retiring, having lost sixty troopers. One hundred men and two resaldars were killed. The fighting continued the whole day ; the wounded returned to the city. When BahAdur Ali, with his 1,000 nien, were crossing the river, he was met by Mirza Mogul and presented with a gold mohur. News came from Lucknow that on the 22nd July several thousand English soldiers had reached the city, and after severe fighting had established themselves there. News came also that the English had taken Benares.
August 7.- The King visited the Selimgarh Fort, and then entered the Public Hall of Audience. Mirza Amin-u-din Khan, Mirza Zia-u-din Khan, Hassan Ali Khan, Rahamat Ali Khan, and Mir Said Ali Khan attended the Durbar. A nazzar was presented on the part of Nawab Ali, of Guzerat. Bahadur Ali Khan, of Kumaon, attended and presented some gold mohurs, and some of his sirdars gave thirteen rupees. Ahmed Mirza, addressing Mirza Mogul, requested him to inquire why Zia-u-din was not present the day, before. An altercation then ensued. Mirza Aminu-din-Khan defended Mirza Zia-u-din, calling Ahmed Mirza a blackguard, and using other opprobrious epithets. Mirza Ahmed appealed to the, King to protect him from insult. The King said he was pained at such language, that Ahmed Mirza was a great chief. A petition received from some landholders of Baroda Zillah, Meerut, that they were willing the King should collect the revenue, if he would render them assistance. The petition was made over to Mirza Mogul. Ghosh Mahommed, one of the officers of the Nimuch force, presented himself, and reported details of the fight of the previous day. The following persons met in the guard room of the Fort : Mirza Mogul, Mirza Kizr Sultan, Rajah Devi Sing, Saligram the banker, Ramji Dass, Rai Gunjaram. A subahdar of a sapper and miner regiment warned them that, if arrangements for paying the mutineers were not speedily made, the soldiers would plunder the city. The above named persons, after consultation, promised to raise one lakh and fifty thousand rupees for the pay of the troops. This afternoon the gunpowder manufactory carried on in the house of Simurd Begum, in Chariwalla Ward, exploded, and four hundred and ninety four blown up; only thirteen escaped. The King was in the Selimgarh Fort at the time, and it was told him that the soldiers were coming to plunder the Palace. Hassan Ali Khan came running to the King, who was standing in the porch of the gateway of the Palace, and reported that the soldiers were under the impression that the explosion had been arranged by him, and that they had gone in a body to plunder his house and kill him. Whilst he was speaking, others came running up, and said that more than a hundred cavalry troopers were hunting for Hassan Ahsanullah. The King commanded him to be hidden behind the throne in the throne room. The King then ordered the gates to be closed, and Hakim Ahsan to be taken for concealment to the Linder ground place of worship. Samund Khan, Resaldar, explained to the men that he was not in the Palace. The King also gave verbal orders to Mirza Mogul to protect Hakim Ahsan's house and stop the plundering. The Mirza tried to carry out his orders, but with little success.The females happily managed to get away, and eventually escaped violence at the hands of these soldiers. Mirza Mogul arrived on the spot, and with some cavalry drove the plunderers away. For greater protection, he brought away on fourteen camels and in two carriages and three waggons the personal effects which had been rescued, and placed them in the Palace, and the King ordered these goods to be locked up in a safe place. The whole day there was fighting between the sepoys and the English. At night the Sepoys surrounded the Palace, and demanded Ahsanullah to be given them. For hours His Majesty resisted their demands. At last, finding hirnself helpless, he agreed, on the condition that his life was spared. This was agreed to, and the Hakim was handed over to the soldiers, and confined by them in the room kept for the custody of the Crown jewels. The King then summoned all his sons around him, and told them to remain by him and protect his life. Mirza Kizr, Mirza Mehd, and Mirza Abdullah remained with him all night. There was a panic in the city; every shop was closed. The Mahommedans passed every hour in fear, and fully expected that the soldiers would kill the King and massacre the citizens. Nazir Ali, formerly in Mr. Simon Fraser's service, and now in charge of a.police station, came to arrest me with a letter from Mubarak Shah, Kotwal, accompanied by a hundred soldiers with unsheathed swords. They got into the house by a rush, as the gatewas being opened for the water carriers to bring in water. The ladies of the family were seated, nursing Maharaj LalI, who had been operated upon for stone, and was suffering dreadful agony. They ran for their lives on seeing the soldiers, leaving several articles of jewelry and a box containing pan. I was then arrested and placed in a palanquin, and taken under a guard of soldiers with drawn swords to the Kotwalis (head police station). I found there Mubarik Shah, who treated me with respect. He was previously a Customs officer, who had now transferred his allegiance to the King. He told me that my fears were unfounded, not to be afraid, as he, too, was a servant of the English. He showed me an order, issued by order of Mirza Kizr, addressed to him, ordering my arrest, together with Munshi Sultan Sing, Chutthun Lal, and Sant Lal. To deceive us, the order stated we were all required for consultation. I and Munshi Sultan were then taken to Mirza Mogul. On arrival a Subahdar, who was standing tried to stab me with a dagger, shouting out: "This is the man who sends news to the English." I was rescued by the crowd (really by God), who explained 1 was summoned to be made to pay money. This gave some peace to my mind. 1 was then taken upstairs to Mirza Mogul. There I saw a great crowd of peopleassembled in a strange, irregular fashion. On one side sat Mirza Mogul reclining on pillows. There were present Hamid Ali Khan, Raj Saligram, Hakim Abdul Hak, and other officials of the King's Court. In front, stretched on a bed, was the notorious Kooray Sing, Brigade Major of the rebel Sepoy army. There was not a semblance of court etiquette. The King's officials were moving here and there without order. Lalla Saligram (treasurer), Ramji Dass Guorwala, Lalla Girdhur Lal, Zorawar Chand, and about twenty five other bankers, were sitting there under arrest ; I was directed to sit in the row with them. Lalla Gham Lal, Lalla Nashi Lal, Lalla Sant Lal, my friends, came there to get me released. Shortly afterwards, Mirza Ahmed Jin went up to Mirza Mogul and whispered something in his ear, upon which the latter summoned Sant Lal and, with a great show of condescension and leniency, told him I was to pay five thousand rupees down at once, or I should be imprisoned. The demand for money was made in the same way from the others, and at last we poor writers were. threatened, guns being placed on our shoulders and fired. But our hearts remained firm by divine impulse, doubtless. We made up our minds to die rather than yield to the threats of these rebels. We were kept in suspense as to our fate, while the rebels deliberated from the morning till four in the afternoon, when Mirza Ilahi Baksh appeared quite unexpectedly, like the Huzoul Khizour, to point out a path to the forlorn traveller, or like the God sent rain to refresh a parched tree. He by favour of God cheered me. He induced Mirza Mogul to grant him a private interview, and, I believe, used such arguments on our behalf, that we were but poor clerks, living on the pay we received; that English rule was not yet abolished. The English might retake the city, and these poor clerks might prove of assistance to him should he then fall into the hands of the English. Mirza Mogul replied that I was sending information to the English, and offering prayers for their success. Mirza llahi Baksh argued that we only had been faithful to those whose salt we had eaten. Ahmed Mirza and the sons of Mirza Jajun argued, on the other hand, that a heavy payment should be exacted or our houses confiscated; the latter hoped that, if I should be put to death, my house would fall into his possession. The proceedings went on till evening. The ornaments taken from my house by the soldiers were recovered from them and taken to the house of Mirza Mogul, where they were weighed and valued at two thousand rupees. This amount was ordered to be deducted from the sum demanded from me. Next pistols were brought in, and an order was given for a gun, with a view to intimidate us. But finding me resolute in my determination not to pay, and being befriended by Mirza. Ilahi Baksh, my tormentors took a recognizance from him, and allowed me to go with him. The good Mirza, in the extreme kindness of his heart, took me straight to my house in safety, and advised me to change my residence and keep myself concealed, or the rebels would find me out again. He told me he was my security, and, through God's favour, the rebels were powerless to harm him. Thus God, through His mercy, saved my life. 1 can never repay the kindness Mirza Ilahi Baksh showed me in this emergency, nor can words express the feeling of my gratitude to him. My tongue can only can express the thankfulness I owe him. If each hair on my body could speak, with each one would I glorify and praise him. I learned afterwards that, when 1 was arrested, Lalla Sham Lal wrote to Mirza Ilahi Baksh that now was the time to render me assistance, as I was a servant of the English and he a well wisher. The Mirza's child had died that morning, and he hurried through the funeral ceremony to come to my rescue. A more sincere friend will never be found.
August 8.- This morning every nobleman waited upon the King; but he said that he would not hold an audience that day, that he was very indignant at the way he had been treated. To some of his courtiers he said : " Every princely house has its vicissitudes, and my turn is now coming." To his sons he gave orders to use every influence, and to empIoy every means, to save Ahsanullah's life and obtain his release. The Begum sent word to the King, that she, too, was suspected of negotiating with the English, and that she had been warned that the soldiers intended to plunder the Palace. The King sent two hundred troopers to guard her house and Ahsanullah's. It was reported that the soldiers had made a bonfire of all the property taken from the latter house. The King had tried to prevent this, but no one paid any heed to his orders. The King sent for the accountants attached to his household ; but, through fear of death, no one would leave their houses. Mirza Abdullah was sent by the King to Hakim Ahsanullah to beg of him to eat some food. Every door and every window throughout the city were closed ; the householders remained in perfect silence within through fear. Throughout the day the Sepoys fought with the English. Great pressure was again put upon me and Munshi Sultan Sing for the payment of two thousand rupees each, but we gave nothing.
August 9.- The King visited the house of prayer. Shah Nizam-u-din, son of Meah Kali Sahib, the King's Teacher, came to the Durbar, and told Mahommed Ali Akbar Khan that fifty troopers had arrived at Patudi, saying they had been sent to bring three lakhs of rupees to the King and, to extort the money, they had seized the son of the chief, and were keeping him in confinement. The King replied: " 1 did not send them to bring the money; the soldiers deserve severe punishment." Rajah Nazir Sing, chief of Bulubgaarh, sent a petition and a nazzar of five gold mohurs. The King accepted the money, and ordered these words to be written on the back of the letter : " 1 have accepted the money on account of your bad name." Orders were issued to Mirza Mogul to withdraw the guards from Ahsanullah's house. A great number of officers assembled in the court, and said : "We are satisfied that the Hakim had nothing to do with the explosion of gunpowder." Six suits of clothing were given to Makund Lal by the King on account of his mother's death. General Mahommed Baksh Khan reported that a Gurkha from the English camp had been taken prisoner. The house of Moulvie Sadar-u-din Khan was attacked to day by fifty soldiers ; but, seeing that there were seventy jehadis ready to oppose them, they retreated, but carried off two colts from the house of Ahsanullah Khan. Several hundred people are reported to have died from the effects of the explosion of the gunpowder factory. The wounded were removed to day to Brahmin Khan's serai, and placed in the Imambara. Six Gurkha soldiers were made prisoners and killed. It was reported in the city that the English had raised two regiments of sappers in Lahore, who had arrived at Delhi, and that gunpowder was being manufactured in the house of Mr. Manson, a European in cantonments.
Angust 10. The King went to the house of prayer. Hafiz Dawu- u-din Sahib and Nazir Hassan Mirza waited on His Majesty, who expressed his anger and disapproval of the excesses committed by the soldiers. The King again pressed the release of Hakim Ahsanullah on Mirza Mogul. A company of infantry and a squadron of cavalry were to arrest Mulishi Choton Lal and Munshi Sultan Sing, on the charge of sending information to the English, but the men avoided arrest. Hakim Ahsanullah was released to day. Mirza Abdullah, son of Mirza Shah Haraj, attended the Durbar, and told the King that Mirza Amin-u-din Khan and Zia-u-din Khan had arnassed a large sum of money, but they had not assisted in any way to pay the Army. The King remained silent. Later on Mirza Abdullah, taking with him an escort of two hundred men, went to Mirza Amin-u-din’s house and aksed for money. Amin-u-din replied: " I have no money; but, if you are come to my house with a force to take my property, then, in the name of God, I am ready for you." And, calling his retainers, he made so great a show of force that Abdullah, seeing he would be overpowered, retired. Mirza Abu Bakr arrested all the bankers in the city, and demanded money. A letter was received from Rao Tulla Ram, of Revari, in which he made certain representations regarding Ghulam Mahommed Khan and Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan, chief of Farukhnagar. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan attended the Durbar and presented a gold mohur, and expressed his deep gratitude to the King, by whose favour alone his life had been preserved. He asked for the restoration of his property, which the soldiers had plundered. The King ordered Mahommed Lal to take five thousand rupees, and get the scattered property together again. Mirza Kizr Sultan came to the Durbar with a proposal that all persons known to have servants to the English should be confined, as they were sending information to the English camp.
August 11.- The King, to mark his respect and sympathy for 11~kim Ahsanullah Khan, desired the Princes to escort him to his house. In accordance with this order, he was escorted by Mirza Mogul, Mirza Kizr Sultan , and Mirza Abdullah. On arriving at his house, he showed them how he had been plundered and his property destroyed and burned. Mirza Mogul witnessed a parade of the troops outside the city. General Ghosh Mahommed Khan waited on the King ; General Bakht Khan and the Princes were also present. The King consented to some compensation being paid to the families of the men blown up in the gunpowder factory. There was severe fighting all day, but the English remained masters of the field.
Angust 12.- The King sat in the Council Chamber. The King desired Moulvie Sadar-u-din Khan to let it be known that he would not again sit in the Public Hall of Audience until the soldiers returned the property plundered from Hakim Ahsanullah's house. Later on a deputation of officers from the Nimuch and Bareilly forces waited on the King and had a private audience, and gave the King some secret information, in consequence of which the King visited the Selimgarh Fort. He consulted with Mirza Amin-u-din Khan and Mirza Zia-u-din Khan, whom he came across accidentally. This night an English force approached the artillery park near the Bara Nindwar, but, finding the Sepoys on the alert, they retired. News reached the city that the forces of the Rajah of Indore had rebelled, that the Rajah had taken refuge with the English, and that 13,000 of his
rebellious soldiers had started for Delhi. It was also reported that the son of Rajah Buni Sing, deceased, had succeeded his father, and had been recognized by the English.
August 13.- His Majesty went to the place of worship. Letters received frorn the Nawab of Farukhabad, Bareilly, and Aminpur, stating that they had possessed themselves of their properties, and asking for the King's written approval. The prayer was granted, The Princes attended the King's audience. His Majesty objected to the practice, recently assumed, of wearing pistols in His Majesty's presence, and forbade it in future. Swords might be worn, and they were sufficient protection. Hassan Ali Khan complained that the soldiers at the Ajmere Gate had taken away a camel, two scimitars, and two changes of raiment; he asked for their restoration. Mirza Mogul was directed to enforce restitution. There arrived from Lucknow 100 cavalry troopers, escorting four wagons of ammunition, sent to General Bakht Khan at his request. Mirza Mogul and other officers met at the guard room of the Fort, and for a short time remained in consultation. A petition came from Mahommed Ali Akbar Khan to the effect that he was suffering great annoyance from the cavalry soldiers. The King replied : " It was wrong of you to kill your soldiers. You have the authority to govern your own country; do so." The English attempted this night to scale the Tilwara Bastion, but, finding the Sepoys on the alert, they retired. The soldiers to day restored the property taken from Hassan Ali Khan. News came that Bega Bhai had sent a notice to the Lieutenant Governor of the North West Provinces that she could no longer control her troops, and they had joined the Indore force, and were marching to attack Agra. On hearing this, the Lieutenant Governor had sent off 100 European soldiers and four elephants for the purpose of preparing a battery. The news of the rebel advance had created great fear in Agra, so that thousands were leaving the city, and the English were borrowing large sums from the bankers and taking every precaution.
August 14.- The King entered the Hall of Public Audience. Hakim Ahsanullah and others attended. General Mahommed Ghosh made a private report to His Majesty, who replied : "Unless the English are driven from the Ridge, you will never
be victorious ; the Indore troops are coming. You have the Nimuch force; you must attack the English at Alipur." Food from the royal table was sent to day to General Bakht Khan. One Nujib Adin sent a letter from Agra. It alleged that the English intended to blow up the Jumma Masjid, and prayed the King to take steps to prevent it.
August 15.- Public audience. Hakim Ahsanullah, Nazir Hassan, and Aurbadhin Sahib were present. The last named said there was a bad spirit extant among the princes. Certain resalddrs petitioned that Rao Tulla Ram had prevented them from joining the King at Delhi ; that he had collected several thousand rupees from the bankers and others for the pay of the Army, and then had appropriated the money ; and they asked the King permission to bring the money by force to Delhi. The King sent them an order to this effect, and another to Rao Tulla Ram to give up the money. Complaints were received at the same time against the oppression of Rao Tulla Ram and Azim Khan, purporting to have been sent by landholders. Information was received that Azim Khan had collected 8,000 rupees from Gui jawan, and had gone to Patudi, and, after leaving that place, had taken. the road to Jajjar; after taking several thousand rupees from the Rajah, he had gone to Rohtuk ; then, putting all the money together, he had gone to Hissar. The King on hearing of Mahommed Azim Khan's movements, was very indignant, and sent off urgent letters to him to send the money at once to Delhi, and in future to oppress no one. The King addressed a letter to the Maharajah of Gwalior, to join him at once with his forces and his treasure; he wrote also to the Bhai Sahiba. To day nearly three hundred Sepoys, despairing of their pay, and disheartened at the result of the rebellion, brought their firearms to the King, and left the city through the Calcutta Gate for their homes.
Muna Lal, Deputy Collector, reached the English camp safely. A trooper killed a foot soldier today at the Delhi Gate, after an altercation. A court martial was held to try the man, under the presidency of Mirza Mogul. News was received that the Nawab of Jajjar, with two field guns and an escort of cavalry, had gone to Patudi to take charge of the administration.
August 16.- Moulvic Fazl Hak attended the audience. He presented a nazzar of a gold mohur, and conversed with the King upon the situation. Petitions were received from the Rajah of Bulubgarh : one was addressed to the Begum, another to the King asking pardon for any offence he might have given to His Majesty: the King sent an autograph letter of pardon. Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan, Chief of Farukhnagar, petitioned the King that he had tried to collect the revenues of Bhora in accordance with orders, but was unable to do so, the reason being that Rao Tulla Ram had warned the villagers not to pay, as the King had given him the village. The petition was made over to General Bakht Khan. The Chief of Jajjar sent in 7,000 rupees, with a petition stating that he had tried to raise the three lakhs of rupees which the King had demanded for the pay of the Army, but he had failed to raise that sum within his territory ; he had, however, raised one lakh, of which he was sending only 60,000 now, and would send the remaining 40,000 within fifteen days ; in the meantime he asked the King to send him an autograph letter, that he might show the purpose for which the money was wanted. In the meantime he asked the King to have his house in the city vacated by the soldiers, who had taken possession of it for a barrack; also, he begged that Mahommed Azim, who had been sent to plunder his territory, should immediately be recalled and no one again sent to his territory without his permission ; further, he prayed for a royal assent in writing to be sent him confirming him in the possession of his territories. The petition was ordered to be made over to General Bakht Khan. Mirza Mogul received information that the principal battery of the English had been left without a sufficient force, as they had sent out the greater part of their men to oppose the rebels in a different direction. As the English flag was flying over the battery Mirza Mogul conceived a plan for spiking the guns and carrying off the flag, for which he ordered out the whole force at his command; one regiment of a thousand strong was directed to make a rush for the battery. But it appears Mirza Mogul was wrongly informed, for the Sepoys met with such a fire from the guns that they lost heavily. The English sent out a force of two thousand strong to Hissar to attack Mahommed Azim Khan.
August17.- Public audience. Some of the Sepoys caught a pedlar crossing the Bridge with 300 rupees ; they took him to the King, who gave them seventeen rupees for their trouble, and the rest was paid into the treasury. Four troopers were sent to Jajjar with letters demanding payment of money. Kasim Ali, resident of Allahabad, presented a nazzar. Hakim Ahsanullah read the King a letter of gratitude, and returned to his house. A requisition was made for three lakhs of rupees for the pay of the troops by Mirza Mogul and Mirza Kizr Sultan, on Mirza Zia-u -din Khan, Mirza Aminulla Khan, Moulvic Sadar-u-din Ali Khan, HAkim Abdul Hak, Raza Khan, Sudar Mirza, Kazi Fazl Ali, Badr-u-din Khwaja Aliu-din Khan. General Mahommed Bakht KhAn complained to the King that the Princes had collected money from different bankers for the pay of the troops, but the troops had not received one pice. On hearing this, the King gave orders to Mirza Kizr to hand over all the money received to the General, and in future when money was requisitioned, it was to be paid to the General, in the presence of the citizens. Certain landowners of Nareli came and complained that because they had killed three Englishmen their village was to be destroyed ; they asked for the King's protection. The King refused any assistance. The landowners of Darna brought a cart laden with cannonballs, which they had found broken down on the road to the English camp. It was reported that out of six grass cutters caught to day by the English two had escaped and four had been shot. The troops went out to fight about four in the afternoon, and continued fighting until sunset.
August 18.- The King visited the Selimgarh Fort, and held a council of war. Ghosh Mahommed reported it was his intention to attack the English the next day, in conjunction with the Bareilly force. Mirza Baksh and Naawab Ahmed Kuli Khan asked for a pass to enable them to pass to and from the Palace; it was granted. Moulvie FazI Hak reported that it was said in the English newspapers that a general massacre would follow the capture of the city; the city would be razed to the ground, and not a voice would be left of the King's household to utter his name or to give him a drop of water. " It is worth your Majesty's while," said the Moulvic, " to devise some means to induce the Sepovs to cease their opposition to the English, for they cannot prevail against the English." The King replied: " Look to your troops ; go out yourselves to fight, and lead them against the English." The Moulvic replied: "Alas! they will not listen to the commands of those who cannot pay them their wages." The King replied: "Use your troops, then, to collect revenue." Mirza Amin-u-din Khan, and others on whom a requisition for money had been made, waited on Mirza Mogul, and represented to him that they had not got the money to pay up. They repeated their inability to pay, on which the Mirza Mogul said to his Silver Stick in waiting, "Arrest that man," pointing to Amin-u-din Khan, "and put him under the guard till he pays the money." Amin-u-din, roused by this impertinence, drew his sword, and challenged anyone to touch him. Turning to the Prince, he said : "If you send troops to my house, I will defend it to the last!" Leaving Mirza Mogul's house, he went to the Palace, and told the King what had happened, and that he would be killed rather than have money extorted from him. The King asked him to be seated, and told him he would be protected from these demands in future, which pacified him. General Bakht Khan was present at the interview, and said the demand was unjust, for the pay of the Army should be demanded from the Army. The King said to the General: "Do not demand money except from the soldiers in the city." Orders were sent to Mirza Kizr not to concern himself with money matters. Orders were sent to the bankers to negogiate directly with General Bakht Khan. Information was received that the residents of Sabzimandi had sent a petition to Sir John Metcalfe, telling him of their utter destitution, and had received a reply to be of good cheer and to keep up a brave heart, for the English would soon be able to relieve them. The sons of Bhoali Shanker received a warning that their absence from the King's audiences had been noticed, and they were suspected of being in communication with the English ; and advising them in future to attend. Mirza Kizr Sultan reported to the King that the Jagirdars of Lohara were in sympathy with the English and in communication with them, and were refusing to give money on that account.
August 19.- It was reported that 600 cavalry had left Delhi disheartened, and through fear of the English. Abdul Hak Khan, son of Moulvie FazI Hak, and Moulvie Faiz Ahmed left for Gurjawan to collect revenue ; Ahsan Baksh, with a force, started for Alipur with the same object. The Bareilly force declared itself discontented with its General (Bakht Khan). The ill feeling arose out of the fact that the General gave two mares that had been captured by his troops as a present to his father in law. The soldiers had chaffingly said that no one was entitled to prize money, except the King; if they shared plunder with the General, why did he not share with his soldiers the lakhs of rupees he had seized ? From chaff arose bitter feelings. The English shot three Sepoys outside the city. The Princes visited the King, and held a long consultation with him on the feeling among the soldiers. Mirza Kizr Sultan rode down to the Bareilly camp. The General offered him a nazzar of an elephant, a horse, a gold mohur, and five rupees. Mirza Mogul sent down 1,000 rupees, collected from some bankers, and a message to say that the payment of the soldiers was receiving the earnest attention of the King and of his councillors. General Bakht Khan summoned Devi Sing and Saligram, bankers, and on their refusing to grant money had them placed in confinement. Mirza Sultan extorted 25,000 rupees from some other bankers and sent the amount to the General. A number of soldiers surrounded the house of Allanath, and demanded 1,000 rupees, or they would kill him. Mirza Mogul hastened to the house, and got rid of the soldiers.
August 20.- After being in confinement ten hours Devi Sing and Saligram paid 6,000 rupees and were released. General Gon Shunker and General Talyar Khan came to the King, bringing a Sikh who had been taken prisoner. He was told to repeat the information he had given. He then stated that Bakht Khan was in secret communication with the English, and it was understood he had arranged to draw off his force to attack Alipur, and then the English would attack Delhi unopposed. The King remarked that the man was a spy, with a mission to create ill will in the Army. He was then asked how many regiments there were, how long they had been in camp, and the name of the General commanding them. The man in answering, all these questions feigned madness, and said he had come to see Mirza Mogul and Said Ali Khan ; he then offered a gold mohur, and said that he had revealed all the secrets of the war. The King remarked that the man was a bad character. News came that the English were constructing a battery in the Metcalfe compound, preventing food for the Sepoys from crossing the bridg e into the city, and were keeping up a heavy fire from it into Selimgarh, but no harm had been done. The King ordered the fire from this battery to be silenced. However, the guns bearing on the bridge became silent, 1 ( 1 This account is not very clear whether the English stopped firing or that their battery was silenced ) but the guns of the Cashmere Gate continued fire; during the night there was no firing. A deputation of the officers came and represented that the men were starving ; the King assured them that that would be speedily remedied. One, Mir Kazim, of Allahabad, was promoted to the rank of Subahdar. Mirza Ilahi Baksh objected, saying it was not right that anyone should be promoted to such a rank without having proved his bravery in the field. The General reported to His Majesty that he would attack the English in the morning. Badhan, son of Mahommed Mir Kham, divided 2,000 rupees among the Jehadis to day, and chaffingly told them not to let the enemy see their backs, but to fight to the end. News came that Bahadur Jang, Khan, of Dardari, had arrived there, and had taken possession of the city. News also received that as 200 of the followers of the Rajah of Ulwa were escorting 350 maunds of sugar, purchased by the Rajah, and two camels laden with goods, Rao Tulla Ram fell upon the caravan, and had taken 1,400 rupees from the men before allowing the caravan to proceed. Mirza Zia-u-din Khan and Mirza Amin-u-din Khan called a meeting, and addressing it, said: "If there were any persons present who preferred death to being plundered by the Sepoys, let them bind themselves to resist further exactions." The bankers of Lal Koti and Chandi Chouk were called on to sign a document to the same effect. When the Sepoys heard of this they determined to kill the originators, but finding the whole city was against them, they thought better of it. The Bareilly camp lost a number of camels ; rewards were offered for their recovery. Akbar Ali Khan, Chief of Patudi, with the assistance of cavalry and artillery from Jajjar, returned to Patudi, and took possession of the city. It was rumoured to day, in the city that the English had given back Lucknow to the Nawab, who had taken over the administration, and peace and order had been restored. News came that the Gujars of a neighbouring district, in two gangs, were plundering and looting the country side in every direction.
August 21.- The King held a Durbar. General Bakht Khan informed His Majesty that he had brought seven elephants and two hundred horses for his inspection. His Majesty went at once to the porch of the gate of the Palace, and, after inspection, selected seventeen horses, and ordered the rest to be taken away. Under the King's orders two batteries were prepared, one at Asinapur, the other at Agharauda, with three guns each. Five companies of Sepoys and one hundred cavalry of the Jhansi force, and three field guns, were sent off to Walid Khan, Chief of Balagarh. A force of three hundred cavalry and foot came to the city from Jadree, and reported that the Jeypur force had mutinied, and were marching for Delhi. Ahmed Ali, Resaldar, returned from Jajar, and complained that he had gone to the Nawab for payment as he had been ordered ; but, whilst there, a letter had come, purporting to be from His Majesty, not to entrust the money to Ahmed Ali. The King denied any knowledge of sending such a letter, but admitted that a like letter had been sent to Patudi. There was a rumour that Narunder Sing, the chief of Patiala, intended to join the English in the camp before Delhi. The rebels took away all the timber from my garden.
August 22.- After the morning audience the King visited the Fort of Selimgarh, and ordered the battery to fire a few rounds. He said to the artillerymen : "It is much to be regretted that, in place of your silencing the English fire, I see their batteries getting nearer every day." The gunners answered: "No fear, your Majesty; we are getting the better of them." The King turned away, and went to the Hall of Public Audience. Ahmed Ali Khan, Resaldaar, asked His Majesty's pleasure in reference to the bond which the Nawab of Jajjar had given ; he was directed to go and realize the money, and in case of default the troops had orders to attack the Rajah's fort. The son of Nawab Mahommed Mir Khan represented to the King, on the part of several bankers, that twice had the Sepoys extorted money from them, and again were now demanding money from them. The King replied : " If the Sepoys would only leave the city, and employ themselves in collecting the revenue, I should be in a position to pay them, and to protect the lives and property of the citizens." On the part of the bankers it was said : "The pay of so large a force amounts to lakhs. It is impossible that we can ever find the money to pay it." The King advised their representative to go to Mirza Mogul. Gunga Pershad, the City Police Superintendant , brought Samund Khan, Resaldar, before the King under an armed guard. It was rumoured in the city that the Bareilly force would march in the morning to Alipur. The King went to the Selimgarh Fort, and after a time
returned to the Palace. I changed my residence to the house
known as Radhakshunwala.
August 23.- Again His Majesty visited the Selimgarh Fort, and ordered the batteries to elevate their fire so as to reach the English camp, and, after watching the fire for some time, he returned to the Palace, and sent off a further force of one hundred cavalry and a company of infantry to get money from Jajjar. Fifty troopers from Jadra came, bringing the heads of five Englishmen, whom they had killed at Indore, and presented themselves before the King. They informed him that five thousand men had killed all the English at Indore, and had dismounted the heavy guns from the fort, which the men were bringing across the river Chumboul and were marching on Delhi. The deputation petitioned the King for letters to be given them: one assuring the Indore soldiers of the King's approval of their conduct and offers of protection ; the second, a written order to Raja Bhaganat Sing, chief of Dholpur, to supply Commissariat. The King expressed his anger that General Bakht Khan had not marched upon Alipur. The officers of the Nimuch force accused Bakht Khan of negotiating with the English, and of withholding his soldiers until the English should receive sufficient reinforcements from England. The King was induced to issue an order that General Bakht Khan should not be admitted to the Palace.
The officers of the Nimuch force then suggested that they should be allowed to disarm the Bareilly troops, which they offered to do with four regiments of infantry and one of cavalry. The King gave no answer to this proposal, but later in the day he issued orders to all the officers to obey neither the orders of Mirza Mogul or of any other General, inasmuch as His Majesty had appointed a Court of twelve members, six to be appointed by the King and six by the Army, for the future conduct of the siege. The Army was to obey all orders issued by the Court. A letter was intercepted to day purporting to have been written by the record keeper of the Commissioner's office, conveying information to the English. In consequence of this Man Sing Mahafiz was arrested; all his property was plundered and carried off to the Palace, where it was placed in custody in the verandah of the Hall of Public Audience. Mirza Amin-u-din Khan and Mirza Zia-u-din Khan hired one hundred men of the cavalry for the protection of their houses.
The Kissenganj Battery was hotly engaged all day. General Mahommed Bakht Khan, in the presence of all the principal officers of the Army, and of Mirza Mogul, swore upon the Koran that he had opened no negotiations with the English. Information came that Prince Mahommed Azim, who had gone withi a force to Hissar, had been beaten in an engagement with the English, and the Prince had been taken prisoner and hanged. It was also rumoured that Mirza Bul, the father in law of the King, who had gone to Soniput, had been taken prisoner by the English. Several foot soldiers attended the Durbar, and complained that no opium could be purchased in the bazars, and from this cause many were dying. The King ordered some of the drug to be sent at once for the use of the soldiers.
August 24.- The King went this morning early to Selimgarh to see a place where it was reported some unknown persons had been digging for treasure. On further excavations being made it was found that some small fieldpieces had been buried there, but no money. After giving orders to have the guns dug up, and watching the artillery practice, the King went to inquire into a complaint made by some bankers against the Princes of extorting money from them for the third time. General Bakht Khan reported that he was going to attack the English, and came to take leave of the King. His Majesty said: "Go, may God protect you! Show your loyalty by attacking the English ; destroy, them, and return victorious." An order was sent to Rao Tulla Ram, Chief of Rewari, to send opium for the use of the soldiers. Information was received from Soniput that the English had ordered the residents to clear out of the town, but the men had refused. The English had sent a force, and there had been a skirmish, with loss to both sides. The English had made the Tehsildar Fazl Hassan Khan a prisoner, and had hanged him. Also, it was said that Golab Sing, the Commissariat collector, and Sirdar Kandar Sing had been guarded by Patiala troops to Rohtuk to collect revenue. It was reported that 400 English soldiers were lying sick and wounded at Umballa.
August 25.- His Majesty went on the river, in a boat manned by some men of the Sapper Regiment, and watched the artillery fire directed on the English from the Fort. Ahmed Mirza came in great haste to the Fort and reported that 150,000 rupees were on their way to the English camp, along the Bagpat road. Six hundred cavalry and two guns were sent off in haste to intercept the treasure. Mirza Mogul, for some reason, was offended, and would not leave his house. More demands were made for pay by deputations of officers. The King went into his private apartments, and brought out jewelry and gave them to the officers, saying, " Take this and forget your hunger"; but the officers refused, saying: "We cannot accept of your Crown jewels, but we are satisfied that you are willing to give your life and property to sustain us." The Nimuch Brigade marched to Alipur. Some of the officers reported that they were in hopes of beating back the English. The Begum Zenut Mehal went to the Lal Koti. Mirza Kwass and Feroz Shaffi reported that they had made arrangements with a banker for the supply of money, and they would pay the troops. The King expressed his pleasure. A man was arrested who was inquiring what time the Ajmere Gate was closed at night and opened in the morning. He was suspected to be in the pay of the English. He was given fifty rupees as a bribe to hold his tongue, and was released. A city spy, resident at Chota Daria, was caught by the English, who, after closely questioning him as to the state of things in the city, let him go.
August 26.- The King sat in the Hall of Public Audience. A trooper named Ashraf Khan entered the Hall, and, saluting His Majesty, proceeded to relate how, the Bareilly Brigade being encamped at Elipalam (sic), the Nimuch Brigade unexpectedly arrived. General Bakht Khan held a consultation with the officer commanding the Nimuch force. He advised him to halt there (as the English force was only a short distance off) and join forces with him, proposing to make a joint attack the next day. The Brigadier of the Nimuch force would not agree to this plan, but pushed on to Bakhtghara, intending to encamp there for the day and rest his men. While the camp was being pitched, and the men had piled their arms, and many had taken off their belts and accoutrements, they were suddenly attacked by the English from two directions with a heavy fire of artillery and musketry. Taken unawares, the Sepoys bolted, leaving twelve guns and their ammunition. The loss, Ashraf Khan went on to say, was a thousand killed and wounded. The King on hearing this news was greatly disheartened, but several of the Councillors suggested that perhaps this man's statement was not true, and probably it was greatly exaggerated, and there was no cause to be anxious. Another informant stated that he knew the English had gone to Alipur. The King regarded the information as very serious. He summoned the following persons to his Council Room : Mirza Mogul, Mirza Koash, Mirza Kizr Sultan, Mirza Abu Bakr, Mirza Abdullah, Mirza Abu Nisr. After consultation, His Majesty directed a force to be sent off at once, under the command of Captain Wallidad Kh~n, to take the English camp in the absence of the troops. All the available troops were collected and put under arms. Then Ghosh Mahommed, the General commanding the Nimuch force, arrived, and on being told of the news received, disclaimed all knowledge of any engagement with his troops, saying that he had received no information and doubted the truth of what he had heard. On being assured that his troops had been defeated, he asked for reinforcements. One regiment of Sikhs and four of cavalry were placed under his command. The force marched, but after going a short distance met the defeated force returning, so, covering their retreat, they returned to camp. An explosion occurred in the Kissenganj Battery, by which twenty four Pathans were killed. Mirza Mogul in the meantime had started with all his force to attack the English camp, but returned without making the attack, with the loss of seventeen men killed. The guns which Mirza Mogul had mounted in different batteries kept up an incessant fire all day, viz., from the Mulahi Bridge, under command of Mirza Koash, and from Kissenganj, under command of Mirza Abdullah. A petition received from the Nawab asking for a letter and some mark of dignity. King's Bodyguard, 11 killed, 30 wounded ; other troops, 100 killed. In the city, great anxiety and distress.
August 27.- Buldeo Sing, the banker, who had promised to advance money for the pay of the troops, made his obeisance to the King and presented a nazzar. Mirza Koash was also present, and expressed great zeal for His Majesty, who appointed him Commander of the Cavalry. A number of the city people captured two camels, eight grass cutter's ponies, one grass cutter, and forty goats, from near the English camp, and brought them into the presence of the King. All the jewellers in the city came to His Majesty to complain of the extortions of Mirza Kizir Sultan. The King promised that they should be protected from further demands. One Tsree Bing, from the Nimuch camp, related how the English first captured two guns, which he, with great bravery, afterwards retook, with the assistance of certain landholders. He accused the Bareilly troops of quarrelling with the Nimuch force, and returning to Delhi without cooperating with thein. He prevailed upon the King to give him the command of five hundred cavalry and four companies from each regiment to attack the English with. The King sent a messenger to General Bakht Khan telling him he had been false to his salt, in turning away from the field of battle. A clerk made a proposal to the King to arrange for the pay of the troops, if all the revenue collections were made over to him. Ahmed Khan, son of the younger Begum, enlisted 100 men, under the orders of General Bakht Khan. It is reported that the Maharajah of Patiala has joined the English in camp. Sent the Purcha (sic) to the English camp. The matter now rests with the Government.
August 28.- Hakim Mahommed Ali Khan, son of Hakim Nasar Ali Khan, attended the Durbar, and presented a nazzar of four rupees. He told the King that the Resaldar sent to Jajjar for money had taken with him a man of very bad character of the name of Kalandar Baksh, who had used very bad language to the Nawab and so angered him that he refused to pay any money. The speaker suggested a nobleman of rank should be sent, when the money would be paid. His Majesty deputed Mirza Kuda Baksh, and sent by him an autograph letter to the Nawab. A man offered the King a rernedy for gunshot wounds, alleging that he cured them. The King ordered the medicine to be first tried on goats in the Mahalab Garden. Amir Rahman Khan presented the King with a box from China, and Mirza Sultan with a horse. Abdul Laluf Khan, a pleader from Cawnpore, presented a nazzar of two rupees on his own account, and four gold mohurs on the part of his clients who had come from Cawnpore with five hundred foot and horse to take service with the King. A petition was received from the Rajah of Bulubgarh, with a present of a horse. Mirza Koash was appointed commander of two regiments of foot, viz. the second Grenadiers and the 4th Regular (Nizamat) Cavalry. He was directed to pay the men, in accordance with an agreement made by him. The force from Nasirabad, which had gone out as a support to the Nimuch Brigade, returned and reported that they had been unable to ascertain their whereabouts. Four native cavalrymen, deserters from the E nglish camp, came in to day, but they were suspected of being spies, and were not admitted into the city. During the night the English attacked the Kissenganj Battery. The whole Sepoy force was put under arms in expectation of an assault from the English. Four landowners represented to the King that the Nimuch force had beaten the English, and was ready to attack the English, but it had no supports. His Majesty did not believe this story, so he directed that three of them should be kept in the guard room, and the fourth he ordered some cavalry to take with them to ascertain the truth. The King promised the men that they would be well rewarded if their statement were true. If false, they would be executed. In accordance with the orders of the Court, Munshi Aga Khan, Munshi Sadat Ali, Ramsahan Mall, and Jehangir Chand, city bankers, were put in prison, and money demanded from them. By order of Mirza Koash, Parka Mall, banker, was also imprisoned till his money was forthcoming.
August 29.- The King sat in the Hall of Public Audience. Hakim Ahsanullah, Said Ali Khan, Nazir Hassan Mirza, Mozuffer-ullah, and other noblemen were present at the Durbar. A communication was read from the Gwalior force stating that the men would very shortly arrive at Delhi. It was rumoured that more than 1,000 men were killed in the attack at Kissenganj, and one English officer. The Sepoys proposed to cut off his head and exhibit it in the city as an evidence of their victory. As they were doing this there came such a storm of shot and shell that the men fled. There was a heavy fire kept up all day both of musketry and artillery, but neither did the English succeed in rescuing the officer's body, nor did the Sepoys succeed in cutting off his head. Three camels arrived, sent by Rao Tulla Ram of Rewari. The King in reply urged him to send money as soon as possible. His Majesty sent an order to
Mirza Mogul not to demand money from Ramji Dass Goroal, as he had already contributed. Some one stole fourteen camels belonging to Bahadur Jang from the rear of the English carnp, and took them away. A letter was sent to Bahadur Jang to trace out and send back the camels, which were attached to the Nimuch column. Orders were sent to the Nawab of Farukhnagar to have two thousand matchlocks made. Mirza Abdullah, son of Mirza Shahir, deceased, reported that a company of sappers and four companies of Sepoys had separated themselves from the English, and had joined the Nimuch column. A letter came from General Mahommed Bakht Khan,stating that many persons were giving the King advice about the war which was of no value ; yet His Majesty was displeased with his generalship. He proposed in the future to concern himself only with the command of the Bareilly column. The King replied: " No one has censured your conduct, and I am quite satisfied to leave the chief command in your hands." A woman employed in the powder factory was arrested, and put in confinement, because a fellow workwoman had heard her say she had been offered six hundred rupees to blow up the factory. A postal runner from the English camp fell into the hands of the Sepoys ; he was questioned closely in Durbar as to what was going on in the camp. He boldly expressed the opinion that the Sepoys would never prevail against the English, the time for that had passed ; but even suppose they did prevail, the position of the English at Agra was perfectly secure. In revenge for his outspoken opinion the Courtiers sentenced him to death. Mirza Khorshed Alum was directed not to enter the King's apartments. He might attend the Durbar. The King issued orders to Dolali Mall, head of the Commissariat, to issue one seer of flour, ¼ seer lentils, half a chillah of clarified butter, one tolleh of salt, and one pice to each soldier of the army ; but this officer pleaded his inability to do so for want of money. The Agent of the Nawab of Rampur attended the Durbar. It was stated to day that there had been a fight between the Gujars and the landowners in the Farukhnagar territory, and more than one hundred people had been killed.
August 30.- The Agent of the Nawab of Rampur sought private audience of the King, which was fixed for after midday. Kudrat Ali Khan, Resaldar, represented that he had brought three hundred persons with him. At the same time, Rahaman Khan, son of Nawab Noagish Khan, informed the King that he had raised a force of five hundred cavalry. He presented a nazzar of twenty rupees and one gold mohur. A Subahdar of Lucknow presented five rupees as a nazzar, with a petition in which it was written that all the English had been killed, and he had brought ten thousand men under his command. "Very shortly I will come to the King's assistance with money and troops." The followers of Kudrat Ali Khan presented each two rupees as nazzars, and Kudrat Ali Khan a nazzar of two rupees sicca struck in the King's name. At the time of presentation it was stated that money of that kind was current in Lucknow. After the Durbar was over, the King remained some time in private audience with Kudrat Ali Khan. Mirza Kizr Sultan was directed to go to the Kutub to collect revenue with a force of 400 cavalry. Kuda Baksh, of Nusapur, was directed to proceed to Jajjar to bring seven thousand rupees, and to take an escort of five hundred cavalry with him. Dolali Mall, chief of the Commissariat, petitioned that he was no longer able to serve out rations to the troops. Munshi Sadat Ali and Munshi Aga Khan, having paid up twenty thousand rupees, were released. Ramsahan Mall paid six thousand and was released. His Majesty went to the Hall of Public Audience after midday. Khan Bahadur Khan Bareilly, presented gold mohurs on the part of his master and himself, and offered an elephant with a silver howdah, a horse caparisoned with a golden cloth, and a copy of the Koran, for acceptance. The agent of the Chief of Rampur also presented a nazzar of 100 gold mohurs, together with a petition.
August 31.- The coat and shoes of the Prophet Mahommed were brought this day with great ceremony from the Masjid of Nulub-u-din, escorted by a company of infantry and four elephants. The King received these holy relics with great reverence, and presented a nazzar of one gold mohur and five rupees, and ordered the relics to be taken back, sending at the same time a dress of honour consisting of six pieces, with three different kinds of jewellry, as evidence of respect for the season of the Moharram (to Kulup-u-din ?). He also sent three pieces of cloth, one jewel, a piece of gold cloth, two shawls, and an embroidered cloth worn over the side of a turban, to the doorkeeper of the Jumma Masjid. Both persons expressed their gratitude and thanks, and each presented a nazzar of two rupees to the King. The King also gave a rupee and four suits of clothes to the boys who accompanied their parents. A spy reported that the English were preparing more batteries on the Ridge, and would destroy the whole city and the troops encamped outside the city walls. The King, on hearing this, ordered the Military Court to sit and consult what should be done. More complaints from the Sepoys that they were starving, as the shopkeepers had refused all supplies for want of payment. Mulahi Lal Muthridi, a trader, reported that no more sulphur could be purchased, and the manufacture of gunpowder must cease. He suggested that urgent letters should be sent to the Nawabs of Farukhabad, Jajjar, and Bhoali to supply this, and His Majesty said: "No, refer this matter to the M ilitary Court ; they are responsible." Mirza Kizr Kizr demanded sulphur from all the traders, giving them the option either to supply the sulphur or money for its purchase, which would be extorted from them. The traders replied: "We have neither money nor sulphur." It was to day proclaimed by beat of drum that if anyone were in want of wood they were at liberty to cut down the trees in the Nodsare Gardens, as they screened the fire of the guns from the Selimgarh Battery. The members of the Military Court summoned the bankers, and asked. them for money (not demanded authoritatively). The bankers replied: "The Princes have already taken three lakhs and seventy thousand rupees from us, and we can give no more." The Court was displeased at this answer, and issued a proclamation that no more money was to be given to the Princes. Mirza Mogul went out to inspect the troops with an escort of two hundred cavalry. On his arrival at the parade ground the troops fired three volleys as a salute: instantly there was a panic in the city. All the shops were closed, and the inhabitants concealed themselves, thinking the English had entered the city.
SEPTEMBER 1: THE BEGINNING OF THE END.
The King held his Durbar ; Ahsanullah Khan, Mirza Aminullah Khan, Mirza Zia-u-din Khan, and five hundred officers and nobles attended. Those named were loud in their complaints that Mirza Mogul and Mirza Kizr had taken several lakhs of rupees from the people in the city, and had given nothing to the Army, and prayed the King to insist on their disgorging some of the money, threatening to arrest and imprison them. His Majesty sent for the two Princes. and told them what had occurred. They replied that 40,000 rupees only had passed through their hands, that the statement about the three lakhs was absolutely false. Mutual recriminations followed. The officers again and again urged upon His Majesty to make some arrangement about the pay, threatening to plunder the city. The King replied: " There is no necessity to plunder. I will sell my horses, elephants, silver and gold ornaments of state, and pay the Army. If 1 do not do so, you can all leave and abandon the city, the more so as I never summoned you. If you intend to plunder the city, kill me first. Afterwards you can do as you please." His Majesty, rising, walked out of the assembly room into his own private apartments. All the officers adjourned to the Public Hall of Audience, and remained there until six o'clock in an excited state, talking and haranguing with Hakim Abdul Hak, Mirza Ilahi Baksh, and Said Ali Khan, who went with a message that the first instalment of their pay would be issued next day, and the Begum Zinut Mehal would, from her own resources, within fifteen days disburse the balance due. After this the three regiments who had been kept waiting for orders to sack the city, returned to their quarters, and the officers, leaving three companies at the Palace gates, with orders not to allow any of the Princes to enter, gradually dispersed. Looking at the pay demand it was seen that the monthly cost of the Army was five lakhs and seventy three thousand rupees. The King was reported to be much dejected. A report came from Mirza Bahadur Shah from Jajjar that Nadir Shah, Resaldar, had suddenly died from cholera. The writer was ordered to return at once to Delhi. A great exodus from the city to da of all the clerk and writer class through fear . A Sepoy guard was placed at the door of A Sepoy guard was placed at the door of Munshi Sultan Sing and and money demanded. The King very angry with the Princes. The Begum in fear of the Sepoys plundering the Palace. She sent three thousand rupees' worth of jewels to the King, and asked him to give it to the Sepoys, but the King refused, remarking, with a touch of sarcasm, that as Iong as he lived let the burden of indigestion and trouble fall on him. Samund Khan, Resaldar, received orders to go and receive six lakhs of rupees from Ellire. The Police officer Shahdara sent in notice that there were two maunds of sugar lying unclaimed there. Mirza Mehdi was ordered to take an escort and bring it in. Two regiments of foot and twenty guns were sent down to arm the batteries during the night.
Seplember 2.- His Majesty sat in the Hall of Public Audience. Mirza Ilahi Baksh, Moulvie FazI Hak, Mir Said Ali Khan, and Hakim Abdul Hak, made their obeisance. Again the soldiers asked for pay. The troops to day were paid in accordance with a detailed arrangement of Mir Said Ali : Each Resaldar, twelve rupees; Subahdars, four rupees; Troopers, two rupees ; Sepoys, one rupee ; Zemindars, three rupees. Kudrat Ali Bey sought an audience, and for a long time was in conversation with the King. Five cavalry soldiers from Lahore came in without arms. News came that the landholders of Kotkausor were rebellious. A force of two hundred English and two guns bad gone to reduce them to order. The Zemindars had fled, but had been brought back, and warned to be on their good behaviour. It was reported also that several thousand jehadis, under Moulvie Jelaludin, had ventured to fight in the open, with the result that the Moulvie and several hundred of his followers had been killed, that the English had taken possession of Aligarh, that a regiment of Sikhs had arrived at Meerut and were encamped near the entrance to the city, and that the English administration was established as it was previously.
September 3.- The King sat in the Hall of Public Audience. The landowners of Lole attended, and paid in 3,500 rupees as Government revenue. They complained that the troops had tried to take the money from them. The King expressed his pleasure, and gave the landowners a present of five pagries (head dress or turban). Bashim Sing, Chowderi of Badri, presented a nazzar of ten rupees to the King, and spoke regarding a case in which he was interested. A palki bearer who had deserted from the English camp, presented Mirza Mogul with a pistol valued at one hundred rupees. Mirza Mogul, Mirza Ilahi Baksh, Hakim Abdul Hak Khan, and Mir Said Ali Khan had a long conference as to how to raise money for the pay of the troops. They sent for a list of Police ratepayers, and with that for a guide, proceeded to make out a list, imposing such a rate as would raise four lakhs of rupees from the city people. Mirza Kuda Baksh reported that he had delayed his departure for Jajjar as he heard the Euglish had taken possession of Gurjawan. The King on learning this recalled the letter he had written to the Nawab. A petition came from the Rajah of Bulubgarh, complaining that "Hakim Abdul Khan is demanding four lakhs of rupees from me for the expenses of the war." The King replied: " The officer you complain against is acting under my orders. I will certainly require the money of him, and again 1 write to you to send the money without delay, also a contingent of five hundred foot soldiers with two field guns, and five maunds of opium ; otherwise I will impose a fine on you of one lakh of rupees." It was reported to day that the Sepoys had proposed to the Tai Mehal Begum to enthrone her in the place of Zinut Mehal Begum, whom they intended to imprison unless their pay was forth coming fifteendays. The soldiers surrounded the house Sultan Sing to extort money. It was reported that there had been a stand-up fight between the Mahommedans and the Hindus of Dasria, in which a number of persons were killed. Muthra Dass, treasurer, was, it is said, plundered on his way to Delhi. Peremptory orders sent to Rao Tulla Ram to pay up the money which he had collected from bankers and shroffs in the city. The English intended to destroy the bridge in the night, but were forced back by a contingent of 2,000 Sepoys. The Sepoys caught a man to day on suspicion of his being a European, but when the Sirdars heard the description of the man they ordered his release. Five companies of foot, two hundred cavalry, and two guns were sent off in the direction of Gurjawan to. oppose the English. The Resaldar who was sent with Kallandar Baksh to Jajjar to get money, returned empty handed, the NawAb having refused to give so much as a single cowrie. The English threw up a battery in front of the Cabul Gate, but it was exposed to so hot a fire from the Cashmere and Cabul batteries that it was knocked to pieces.
September 4 Mahommed Bakht Khan visited the King and entered into private conversation with him. Certain officers of the Nasirabad camp, it appears, gave His Majesty a great deal of annoyance last night regarding their pay. In consequence of this the King ordered all the silver goods to be made over to them saying: "Sell them, and divide the proceeds among yourselves for pay." The officers were still dissatisfied. Autograph letters were despatched to the Rajahs of Jeypur, Jhodpur, Bikanir, and Alore, that the King was in want of troops and was desirous of annihilating the English ; but inasmuch as he had no reliable person to organize and administer the very important affairs of the empire at this juncture, federacy of States ; and if the States he now addressed with these letters would combine for the purpose he would willingly resign the power into their hands. The sugar sent for from Shahdara arrived this day. The force that had been despatched to Gurjawan appears, on reaching the Kutub, to have plundered a number of shops, and to have arrested a number of petty moneylenders who had taken refuge in a temple. The Sepoys also plundered all the property belonging to his relatives which was in Sir John Metcalfe's house and which had been placed in charge of a Jernadar, and servants appointed by the King for its safe custody. The Jernadar was arrested and taken by the Sepoys, together with the property, to the King, who, on learning what had happened, was very angry and ordered the servants to be released. 1 ( 1 The arrangements made by the King protected the Metcalfe property at the Kutub from May till September, when it was all plundered, except some cases of books which had escaped observation (and found their way back to England), having been placed in the dark inner lining of the dome. Whether the King protected the property for his own use eventually, or out of a friendly feeling to the owners, is a matter of speculation. ) A man named Haidar, a petty trader, whose wife was a resident of Jallabhari, having dressed himself in an ornamental coat, and disguised a number of bad characters as soldiers, went to the house of one of the citizens, where he represented himself as one of the Princes, and having beaten the man, extorted four hundred rupees. When the soldiers heard of this they went in search of the rascal and apprehended him. They found on him 201 gold mohurs, 54 rupees, a pair of bracelets, a gold chain, and several golden breast ornaments. This day Wallidad Khan, chief of Balaghari, sent a petition to the effect that the English had occupied Aligarh, and were intending to attack him, but that God in His mercy had sent two regiments of foot, and some cavalry frorn Lucknow had joined his force. As these troops were on the march to Delhi an order to retain them was asked from the King on the agreement that the Chief would pay them. His Majesty assented to the proposal, and a reply was returned. The Volunteer Regiment, the 28th Foot, brought their Commandant before the King and charged him with being in communication with the English. General Mahommed Bakht Khan defended the Moulvie, and the King ordered his release from arrest. His Majesty sent a written order to General Bakht Khan to pay the troops to the amount of twenty six thousand rupees. The General replied he could not find the money, that he himself was so much pressed for money for his food that he had been obliged to sell elephants and horses. It was reported that Rana Bhagonaut Sing, chief of Dholpur, had sent fifteen hundred foot, some cavalry, and six guns to the assistance of the English at Agra, and they were encamped at the artillery ground sixteen miles distant. It was also stated that Sirdar Sing, chief of Bikaner, had enlisted and sent three thousand Rajputs to the assistance of Captain Robertson, and had written to say he was about to begin fighting. The Rajah of Nalagah, it was reported, had enlisted a thousand Gurkhas to assist the English. It was reported that the English were now in good heart, and the Maharajah RunbIr Sing, chief of Jammu, was sending five thousand men to Lahore to assist the English. It was also reported that the magazine at Jhorpore had been struck by lightning and had exploded, and several thousand persons had lost their lives by it and a great part of the city was destroyed. Further reports told that Rajah Nazir Sing had sent six hundred muskets to the English. The English had written to the Nawab of Jajjar to send 2,080 blacksmiths (sic), which order he had obeyed. It was rumoured that the English had killed all the Mahommedans in Aligarh, and had sent off two thousand Europeans from Cawnpore to the assistance of the Bailly Guard force at Lucknow; that there had been a fight with the English, in which the Sepoys had been defeated and had fled.
September 5.- The King held a council to day, in which the position of affairs was considered. General Bakht Khan reported that the English siege train had arrived, and they were erecting breaching batteries opposite the Cashmere Gate. The King inquired, " What arrangements are you making for meeting the English fire ? If you cannot oppose them you had better open the gates of the city at once." The General said: " I am removing the Magazine outside the city, and I propose to meet the English fire with forty guns, for which I am constructing batteries." The General further explained that he had arranged to employ two thousand cavalry to cut off all commissariat supplies from the English camp. The King inquired what stock of gunpowder there was, and an urgent letter was sent off to the Nawab of Farukhabad to send without delay two thousand maunds of sulphur. Mir Said Ali Khan, Hakim Abdul Hak Khan, Mirza Ilahi Baksh, and Saligram the Treasurer met and consulted on the ways and means of paying the Army. Orders were issued to the police to appoint a "Pauch" 1 ( 1 A "Pauch" is a committee of five traders)I every day to fix the prices of food. A force was sent from the Nasirabad contingent to bring in revenue from Ghaziabad, but these orders were countermanded by Prince Mirza Mogul.
September 6.- The King sat in the Hall of Public Audience, and on hearing that the force ordered to Ghaziabad bad been countermanded by Prince Mirza Moghu, His Majesty expressed displeasure. An artizan exhibited a cannon ball he had made. General Mahommed Bakht Khan made a complaint that, whereas the King's servants and other troops had received wages, the Bareilly force, on which the brunt of the fighting fell, had received nothing ; that all his men were, in consequence, discontented. The King replied "I have already caused one lakh of rupees to be distributed ; the treasury is empty. How many lakhs of rupees have passed through your hands ? Why have you not paid your men with some of the money?" A number of carts came from Shahdara into the city to day laden with sugar. There was a very large gathering of officers at the Durbar today ; they complained that there was no chief official to command or to issue orders. What should be done ? For this reason there was "confusion worse confounded." The King replied: "You alone have the power to act. Whatever you think you are able to accomplish, that do." More cavalry arrived to day from Lucknow. Intimation came from two foot regiments from Lucknow that they were hastening to Delhi. The King gave as his answer: "Come, if you desire; if not, go elsewhere." Moulve FazI Hak reported that the force from Muttra had gone to Agra, and after defeating the English had advanced against the city. It was reported that some European and Sikh regiments had joined the English on the Ridge.
September 7. The King remained in his private apartments. Ahsanullah Khan Dad and General Mahommed Bakht Khan waited on His Majesty the latter remained for some time in private conference. The title of Khan Bahadur, with a present of two shawls, was conferred upon the Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly. The patent was made over to his agent, who was despatched with it. A petition was received from the Chief of Bulubgarh , Nahir Sing, to the purport that sixty troopers had come with an order from the King to release Jumbit Khan. The Chief wrote: "Although I do not credit this order, the man has been released ; but I have suffered great loss through these soldiers, who have taken several thousand rupees from me for their expenses." The King dictated a reply that he had never sent any soldiers, nor any such order, and the soldiers should be arrested and punished. A report came from the Morar force that owing to the want of boats it could not cross the river Chamboul. A petition received from the Nawab of Farukhnagar brought by artillerymen. A sum of one thousand rupees received from Nawab Amin Al Rahaman Khan, son of Noarish Khan, deceased, for which a receipt was granted. It was reported that the English had seized a number of buffaloes feeding in the Kudsalah Gardens, and had carried them off. General Bakht Khan attended with a deputation of ten of his officers, to inform the King that the men of his force had not received one pice of pay from the day that it had entered Delhi; that the men were very discontented and threatened to leave for their homes. The King replied they might do as the were minded, so far as he was concerned. Hakim Abdul Hak, Mir Said Ali Khan, Moulvie Fazl Hak, Badar-u-din Khan, and every nobleman and chief citizen attended the Durbar. The police had also caused the attendance of every jeweller. They were informed that the citizens must raise eight lakhs of rupees immediately for the pay of the troops. The merchants replied that owing to the plunder and extortions and stoppage of all trade, it was impossible for them to raise the money required. After giving these orders the King directed Prince Mirza Mogul to exercise due diligence in the realization of the money, and notify the King's orders by beat of drum throughout the citv. In consequence of this step being taken by the King the Military Council decided to attack the English next day, and it was proclaimed that every citizen, Hindu or Mahommedan, who assisted in the attack, should share the plunder, and whoever made prisoners of Gurkhas, Sikhs, or English, would be handsomely rewarded. These orders were read to the troops on parade. Mir Said Ali Khan, Dewan Makund Lal, Bardar-u-din Khan, Hakim Abdul Hak, with his sons, and Nawab Kuli Khan, were all arrested and put in the Palace Guard room, by order of the Military Court, till money was forthcoming for the pay of the soldiers. They pleaded that they were making arrangements to raise the money. It was reported that four hundred English soldiers with four guns had reached the camp, and the English were busy constructing batteries. It was reported that the English had levied a tax of one maund of wheat flour and one rupee in cash on every head of the population of the town of Panipat.
September 8 The King remained in his private apartments. On the previous evening the English were busy finishing the construction of a battery in the Kudsia Gardens, and from there they opened fire, shot after shot being directed against the Cashmere and Mori Gates. All the Sepoys in the different bastions were hotly engaged. Shot after shot came flying into the city. On all sides it was being repeated "Whatever it pleases God, we must await patiently." The King summoned the Military Court, and ordered them to release the persons in custody. On their agreeing to raise money by a self imposed tax throughout the city for the pay of the Army, they were released. It was rumoured that the fire from the city bastions had silenced one of the English guns and a mortar. Shot after shot fell into the city, but did little or no harm. A Sepoy on the roof of Munshi Sultan Sing's hniise noticed keeping watch. He then was seen to go into the house of a Hindu. On suspicion that he was signalling to the English, he was killed. It was notified that all complaints would in future be heard by the Military Court at the office of the Press, at the Delhi Gate. The agent of the Nawab of Barcilly, with his escort of soldiers of the Bareilly force, made an attempt to leave the city, but they were stopped by the guard at the Calcutta Gate. In accordance with the King's orders, the police proceeded to collect three months' rent from every shop and dwelling house for the pay of the Sepoys. Imdad Ali Khan attacked the English with great bravery. He was surrounded, but managed to escape with considerable difficulty. All night the soldiers remained under arms.
Seplember 9. The King sat in the Hall of Public Audience, and inspected a horse from Faridkot. Imdad Ali Khan attended the Durbar. The King praised his bravery, and presented him with a horse from his own stable, in exchange for his charger, shot yesterday in battle. The King ordered the arrest of the Princes who had misappropriated money collected for the pay of the Sepoys. It was rumoured to day that a force from Bornbay had arrived, and was encamped at Kishen Dass's Tank. A camel trooper was sent out to ascertain if this were true. He returned and reported that there was no such force encamped there. Munshi Joalla Pershad, Commissariat clerk, was ordered to prepare a die for stamping the current coin, with the following words "The Coin of BahAaur Shah, King of Hindostan. By the mercy of God, the Golden Armament of the World." In accordance with directions given to Munshi Joahir Lal, Kalander Baksh, subahdar of the Sapper Regiment, waited on the King, and petitioned that the Governor-General, with several thousand troops, native and English, was marching from Calcutta to Delhi; that Joahir Sing, the nephew of Maharajah Golab Sing, chief of Jammu, was hastening to Delhi, with six thousand of his troops; that Sir John Lawrence had started with several thousand newly raised levies from Lahore ; and that the English camp had so increased that it extended from the Ridge nearly to the city ; that lie (Kalander Baksh) had constructed an entrenched battery, and was prepared to fight the English as long as he had life. Wallidad Khan, chief of Bulubgarh, sent an urgent letter asking for troops to reinforce him ; the King flatly refused, saying "Fighting has begun again here in real earnest, and this is no time to send reinforcements elsewhere" The agent of the Nawab of Bareilly waited on the King, and stated that he wished to return to Bareilly to look after the collection of the revenue, with a view to sending money for the Royal Treasury, but that the guard at the Calcutta Gate had refused to let him pass. The King, after considering the matter, ordered that the agent should be allowed to leave the city ; the guard, however, refused to obey the King's orders. Many men, women, and children were killed to day by the cannonballs. The Sepoys proposed to construct a walled entrenchment near the Magazine. The Cashmere Gate was much injured by the breaching batteries. The King sent sixty maunds of sweetmeats to the Sepoys, and twenty four rupees. In the course of the day the officers again pressed for their pay. Kadir Baksh, subahdar of the Sappers, reported that the English evidently intended to assault the city in the morning ; it was so rumoured. News came that the English had entirely destroyed the village of Pakhoa, and had burned it, because the villagers had refused to pay their revenue. Five thousand rupees
were found in a hide skinner's house. The troops were under arms all day, behind the entrenchments.
September 12.- . The King went to the underground mosque, this day, for prayers. Hassan Ali Khan followed the King, and made his obeisance, as did also Nazir Hassan Mirza, and intimated that an agent from Lucknow would arrive the next morning, but that he had sent on a request that he might be received privately. His Majesty agreed to the proposal. Five thousand rupees were sent to the gunpowder factory to day, for the manufacture of gunpowder. Samund Khan, Resaldar, left for Jajjar. The Nawab of Jajjar to day sent the salary of Hassan Ali Khan. Mirza Amin-ud-din waited on the King and reported that he had enlisted two hundred men to collect the revenue from Loharu. He asked for orders to the guards of the City Gates to allow him to leave the city. The King declined to issue the orders, as the Sepoys refused to obey his wishes. Mirza Mogul visited the Cashmere Gate guards, and made special arrangements for the battery in front of Mir Said Ali Khan's house. A petition, signed by several shopkeepers, was presented to the King, saying that they were in great fear of being impressed to work the guns in the batteries, as policemen had been told off to seize them for this duty. Through fear of being carried off, they had closed all their shops. The Military Court issued stringent orders against any of the leading class being impressed for duty on the batteries, but Chamars (skinners) and labourers were to be impressed. A Sepoy drew his sword to intimidate Mir Said Ali Khan for not paying the troops. Shot fell in the city throughout the night. A woman and one Joahir Lal were killed to day by bursting shells, and two Sepoys were wounded. A proclamation was issued, that anyone refusing to pay three months' rent would be severely punished. The King passed the night in great anxiety all his personal attendants remained with him throughout the night. A proclamation was issued by beat of drum, that His Majesty would himself lead an attack on the English this night and would destroy them, and inviting the whole city to rise and sweep through the English camp, and by their force of numbers kill every European soldier. The proclamation invited both Hindus and Mahommedans to bind themselves by an oath to do so. In consequence of this notice, upwards of ten thousand Mahommedans congregated near the Cashmere Gate, and waited till midnight for the arrival of the King; gradually this great assembly dispersed and went home.
Seplember 13.- The King attended public worship. After prayers, Nazir Hassan. Mirza introduced Mirza Abas Bey agent of the Court of Lucknow. He presented the King with a nazzar of two gold mohurs. His Majesty conferred on him the title of Safir-ul-Bowlah. The agent, in return, presented His Majesty with twelve gold mohurs, two horses nobly caparisoned, two elephants with clothing and Howdah of State, a pair of jewelled bracelets, a jewelled crown , with a petition asking for a patent of dignity and rank, and a title to his property and possessions. The Sepoys to day completed a battery at the Magistrate's Cutcherry and at Mir Said Ali Khan's house. A shell burst in General Baldit Khan's camp, wounding several Sepoys, of whom two or three died. A barrel of cartridges was also blown up. Throughout the day and night the artillery fire was constant, cannon answering cannon. The residents of Kajuzi Mohalla, one of the city wards, and of Sadat Ali Khan's ward, left their houses, and sought refuge in a more distant part of the city. The whole city would have been deserted by man, woman, and child, if the city guards had only permitted them to leave. It required all the exertions of the police to induce some of the shopkeers to open their shops. The English had constructed a batery in front of the Lal (red) Gate and made a breach in the masonry of the Cashmere Gates, and were in hopes that they would be able to enter the city by night time. A friend of mine was arrested, on suspicion of giving information to the English. Seventy men, who had deserted frorn the English camp, got into the city, and took five Moguls as prisoners before the King. Muttra Dass and Saligram, Treasurer, were placed in confinement. It was proclaimed in the city, that to morrow every citizen should attack the English camp. It was reported to day from Meerut, that the English had enlisted a great number of Jats and Gujars, and had realized revenue from nearly one hundred villages, and peace and security had been re established in that district, as also at Aligarh. A very heavy siege gun, to judge from the sound, was firing into the city all night. All passed a night of anxiety.
September 14.- The King remained in his private apartments. There was a rumour that the English would assault the city. Mirza Mogul ordered all the troops in the Palace under arms to take part in the defence. To day it was apparent that Delhi was to become the scene of a severe battle. For the most part the Sepoys slunk behind the entrenchments. Eventually the English took possession of the Cashmere Gate and the Ali Burj Bastion. Some Europeans, Sikhs, and levies ventured as far as the Jumma Masjid, and drove back the Sepoys. Many thousand Mahommedans were assembled in the Jumma Masjid, and attacked the English, and killed a great many of them, so many that the soldiers retreated. A severe fight took place in the Begum's garden, where four hundred men fell.
About midday the Mahommedans ceased to oppose the English. They together with the Sepoys, began to take refuge in the houses of the Hindus, whom they upbraided for not co operating with them. The whole day, they were pouring abuse upon the Hindus, threatened to massacre both them and their families, when they should have defeated the English. The King endeavoured to mediate, and to pour oil on troubled waters, by proclaiming his intention of taking the field in person next day with a united force of all the Mahommedans and Hindus in the city.